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[en] Japan was mandated to achieve under the Kyoto Protocol is a 6% reduction compared with 1990 in the period from 2008 to 2012. All countries, even developing countries, should be included and discussed in any plan. It must be flexible and there must be diversity. A high value is placed on making the best use of technology for conservation of energy etc., and to unite environmental preservation and economic development. Plasma processes are carried out in either the high-temperature environment of transferred and non-transferred plasmas or at pressures low enough to give large active volumes with higher electron and lower gas temperature glow discharge plasmas. Several eligible non-thermal plasma technologies are already finished for small scale pilot test, and are already in the stage of commercialization. (author)
[en] This part treats five articles whom titles follow: International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (2005); Entry into Force of the Kyoto Protocol (2005); Third Review Meeting of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (2005)Generation 4 International Forum (GIF) (2005); Status of Conventions in the field of nuclear energy. (N.C.)
[en] The present paper reviews the international climate change financial framework and aims at providing insights on its future post-2012 development. This study offers an overview of the good attributes and distortions of the current regime, while investigating the work currently done by many countries and international organisation, in proposing unique and original financial schemes for a post-Kyoto agreement. The objective is to define potential strengths and shortcomings of the current (or projected) financial regime, and put this in relation with the creation of an improved new financing scheme, that could transfer sufficient resources from North to South in an efficient, transparent and participatory way. Indeed, international climate change negotiations are now working in this direction, and the regular submissions from Parties and civil society to the UNFCCC's AWG-LCA witness the desire of governments and organisations to achieve an innovative climate change agreement that could overcome existing weaknesses in the global financial structure, while providing nations with suitable tools to handle the adverse consequences of climatic modifications. The paper will additionally focus on the role of CDM and credit-based mechanisms in a new future financial framework, in consideration of needed improvements in the current international credit system and country visions and AWG-LCA submissions.
[en] There is a concern in many countries that introducing a tradeable greenhouse-gas quota system may lead to closures of emission-intensive industrial companies. Jebjerg and Lando argue in an article published previously by this Journal that shutdowns can be prevented by a generous distribution of free quotas. However, this is only true if the quotas are distributed contingent on continued production. Some of the practical problems with conditional allocation of free tradeable quotas can be avoided by letting all free quotas be non-tradeable
[en] With the recent progress in Bonn and Marrakech on the details required for implementing the Kyoto Protocol, entry into force in 2003 is now a possibility. This paper assesses the potential macroeconomic impacts of the Kyoto Protocol, given the recent negotiated developments. In addition, given the recent attempts in the literature to model endogenous technical change in general equilibrium models, a new methodology for incorporating the induced innovations hypothesis into a general equilibrium model is described and implemented. In line with previous work, it is found that incorporation of the hypothesis reduces abatement costs. (author)
[en] In the first part of this report an overview is given of the energy version of WorldScan, which is a dynamic multi-region, multi-sector applied general equilibrium model. The second part presents applications, concerning the medium term (Kyoto protocol) and the long run (stabilization scenarios). Finally, one of the appendices presents an overview of the WorldScan User Support System (WUSS), which we developed as part of this project. WUSS visualizes a database with WorldScan model simulations and includes the new IPCC-SRES baselines and post-SRES stabilization scenarios. The analyses presented in this report show that some countries will gain and some will lose from implementing the Kyoto Protocol (KP). However, the USA does not ratify the Protocol, and this will economically benefit the other OECD countries and burdens the former Soviet Union and the global environment. The KP will imply a cost to the Non-Annex B energy exporters such as the Middle East. But in globalizing worlds they may gain, because of lower trade barriers that encourage relocation of energy-intensive production from Annex B towards the Middle East. The phenomenon 'carbon leakage' undermines the effectiveness of the KP. In the long run, non-Annex B countries will have to reduce emissions to stabilize greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. Global emission trading is the instrument that allows for allocations of emission permits to non-Annex B that compensate them for any losses without sacrificing economic efficiency. 42 refs
[en] This paper gathers results from 25 models of the market for tradable greenhouse gas (GHG) emission permits under the Kyoto Protocol. Due to diverging projections of emissions growth and different modeling approaches, the model results differ substantially. The average market volume is approximately 17 and 33 billion USD under global trading and Annex B trading, respectively. Including non-carbon GHG lowers compliance costs and permit prices. In the absence of the US, permit demand roughly equals 'hot air' from the former Soviet Union. These countries can increase their revenues from selling permits by restricting supply, which raises the permit price
[en] In accordance with the main objective for 2014, ARSN has been able to train its staff with the help of IAEA (Zimbabwe (2013) and Tunisia (2014)) training on the use of SARIS software. ARSN is now able to perform self-assessment including all phases: preparation, response, analysis and action plan. The recommendations of the action plan for 2014 have been implemented or are being considered for implementation.