Results 1 - 10 of 138
Results 1 - 10 of 138. Search took: 0.02 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] Reaching the goal of the Paris Agreement requires substantial investment. The developed country parties have agreed to provide USD$100 billion in climate finance annually from 2020 to 2025. Ongoing negotiations on post-2025 commitments are likely to exceed that sum and include a broader scope of parties. However, there is no guidance regarding the allocation of contributions. Here, we develop a dynamic mechanism based on two conventional pillars of a burden sharing mechanism: emission responsibility and ability to pay. The mechanism adds dynamic components that reflect the Paris principle to ‘ratchet-up’ ambition; it rewards countries with ambitious mitigation targets and relieves countries with a high degree of climate vulnerability. Including developed country parties only, we find that ten countries should bear 85% of climate finance contributions (65% if all parties to the Paris Agreement are included). In both scopes, increasing climate ambition is rewarded. If the EU increased its emission reduction target from 40% to 55% by 2030, member states could reduce their climate finance contributions by up to 3.3%. The proposed mechanism allows for an inclusion of sub-, supra- or non-state actors. For example, we find a contribution of USD$3.3 billion annually for conventionally excluded emissions from international aviation and shipping. (letter)
[en] A recurring theme throughout this conference Exploring 30 Years of Safety Culture, was the precise denotation of the concept ‘safety culture’. ‘Safety culture’ is composed by two nouns, the subject culture, (arguably, the manifestations of human intellectual achievement regarded collectively), and the qualifier safety (that is the condition of being protected from or not exposed to danger or risk). In the expression safety culture, safety is not used as an adjective proper, but as a modifier of the noun culture, denoting a culture designed to prevent injury or damage. This use, while common in the English language, is imprecise and definitively objectionable in other languages Unsurprisingly, the expression ‘safety culture’ is subject to subtle different interpretations, particularly in languages other than English. The lack of a globally agreeable and precise understanding on what safety culture really means has caused significant bewilderment and has challenged its operationalization. Perhaps due to vagueness on the precise denotation of safety culture, it was argued during the conference that the concept should be considered intangible and therefore unfeasible to regulate as a whole and thus unable to be subjected to legally binding obligations. This was always clear in the nuclear area (e.g. safety culture is not a legally binding obligation under the Nuclear Safety Convention). During the session it became apparent that this also seems to be the case in other applications.
[en] Reducing forest loss has the potential to reduce global carbon emissions, but paying countries to do so will only work if activities are targeting areas with rapid deforestation or high threat. As of December 2017, 25 countries reported their benchmark greenhouse gas emissions from forests (‘reference levels’) under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, with the aim of receiving payments if they end up releasing less or removing more. There remains however a question as to whether the eventual emission trajectories compared to these reference levels represent real emission reductions, as the benchmarks rely on a variety of different methods and limited datasets. To examine whether the forest areas historically associated with significant emissions are targeted in the reference levels, we compared the forest area estimates submitted by seven countries in Asia and the Pacific (Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam) with forest area estimates using the Global Forest Change v1.4 (GFC) dataset from 2000–2016, processed to closely match national forest definitions. GFC provides standardised tree cover change data based on biophysical characteristics using an extensive collection of satellite images. We found consistent differences, with most countries reporting considerably less forest loss than the GFC-based analysis. These differences are due to the countries’ selection of activities to report, as well as their choice of forest types and land use, defining the forest areas to be monitored. Our study highlights an urgent need to address the gap between the forests monitored by countries and those sources of emissions. The current approaches, even successfully implemented, may not lead to emission reductions, thereby challenging the effectiveness of carbon payments. (letter)
[en] Background: Current climate change mitigation policies, including the Paris Agreement, are based on territorial greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting. This neglects the understanding of GHG emissions embodied in trade. As a solution, consumption-based accounting (CBA) that reveals the lifecycle emissions, including transboundary flows, is gaining support as a complementary information tool. CBA is particularly relevant in cities that tend to outsource a large part of their production-based emissions to their hinterlands. While CBA has so far been used relatively little in practical policymaking, it has been used widely by scientists. Methods and design: The purpose of this systematic review, which covers more than 100 studies, is to reflect the policy implications of consumption-based carbon footprint (CBCF) studies at different spatial scales. The review was conducted by reading through the discussion sections of the reviewed studies and systematically collecting the given policy suggestions for different spatial scales. We used both numerical and qualitative methods to organize and interpret the findings of the review. Review results and discussion: The motivation for the review was to investigate whether the unique consumption perspective of CBA leads to similarly unique policy features. We found that various carbon pricing policies are the most widely supported policy instrument in the relevant literature. However, overall, there is a shortage of discussion on policy instruments, since the policy discussions focus on policy outcomes, such as behavioral change or technological solutions. In addition, some policy recommendations are conflicting. Particularly, urban density and compact city policies are supported by some studies and questioned by others. To clarify the issue, we examined how the results regarding the relationship between urban development and the CBCF vary. The review provides a concise starting point for policymakers and future research by summarizing the timely policy implications. (topical review)
[en] Nuclear Material Accountancy (NMA) is a key pillar of the Safeguards system, and its use in Material Balance Evaluations (MBE) is essential to the detection of diversion of nuclear material. In addition to MBE, NMA data can be used for network analysis in order to identify potentially declarable activity. Network analysis of NMA data has resulted in inquiries to some States pursuant to Article 4.d of the Additional Protocol, and has resulted in Complementary Access (CA) visits to locations under Article 5.c of the Additional Protocol. In some cases, this has led the Safeguards department and the applicable States to identify new Locations Outside Facilities (LOFs) that are to be declared under the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements, and in other cases, identify new sites that are declarable under the Additional Protocol. NMA Explorer is a new tool and its associated workflows enable the Department of Safeguards to perform network analysis of NMA data at scale. (author)
[en] Myanmar has had a Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement and a Small Quantities Protocol in force with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since 20 April 1995. The next steps in strengthening international safeguards in Myanmar are ratification of the Additional Protocol and introduction of Integrated Safeguards. Currently, the Division of Atomic Energy (DAE) is the State authority responsible for Safeguards implementation in Myanmar. To enhance safeguards effectiveness and to raise awareness, the DAE is endeavoring to: release information to the media for public awareness; engage in national and international events; translate technical documents into the national language, and exchange knowledge with relevant stakeholders. In order to strengthen its national nuclear-related legislation, the DAE has completed the drafting of Myanmar’s comprehensive Nuclear Law covering Nuclear Safety, Security and Safeguards (i.e., 3S strategy). Furthermore, the development of a number of regulations, namely Nuclear Safety Regulation, Nuclear Security Regulation and Safeguards Regulation, will follow. Myanmar, a State with very limited quantities of nuclear material, is aware of the importance of physical protection of both nuclear material used for peaceful purposes and of nuclear facilities used for peaceful purposes. Physical protection plays an important role in supporting global nuclear nonproliferation and counter-terrorism objectives. Myanmar, therefore, acceded to the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) and its amendment on 6 December 2016. Moreover, Myanmar has expressed a political commitment with regards to the Code of Conduct on Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources. Challenges being encountered include the development of a legal framework; the implementation of safeguards regulations; not having available sufficient safeguards experts; a lack of financial resources; and infrastructural problems. Strategies to address these challenges include enhancing future safeguards capabilities by making every effort to provide nuclear non-proliferation and safeguards training for young up-and-coming Myanmar nationals. Furthermore, the DAE places top priority on providing for development of the necessary legal and regulatory infrastructure for safeguards, and to strengthen the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material (SSAC). (author)
[en] In recent years, the need to achieve a better integration between two basic pillars of nuclear energy - safeguards and security (2S) - has become widely recognized. This paper proposes an integration of 2S such that there is no overlap or omission of important responsibilities. An effective implementation of 2S assures the commitment of a State to peaceful use of nuclear energy, and integrating the two can optimise the available resources, techniques and expertise within a State. Various examples of 2S integration are presented in this paper. Implementing integrated 2S by design, and coordinated use of surveillance systems and nuclear material tracking systems in a nuclear facility, ensures effective utilization of resources with shared responsibilities. The integration of 2S in the field of nuclear material accounting and control not only promotes the timely detection but also prevents diversion of nuclear material. An integration of export control with safeguards strengthens the State’s non-proliferation objectives. International cooperation plays a vital role in improving the effectiveness of integration between nuclear safeguards and security. This paper will highlight commonalities between the objectives of various international binding and non-binding instruments like CPPNM, UNSCR 1540, ICSANT, Code of Conduct on safety and security of radioactive sources etc. with safeguards. In addition, the coordination of global centres of excellence (COE) with State R & D initiatives would enhance the State’s capabilities in containment and surveillance systems, physical protection systems, various verification mechanisms and nuclear forensics systems etc. Responsible sharing of information e.g. best practices, implementing experiences, security breach incidents, nuclear accidents, nuclear material theft etc. can provide a platform to develop response mechanisms to protect the human environment from acts of terrorism. (author)
[en] Given that the Paris Agreement has strengthened the long-term temperature goal and that it calls for a balance of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and sinks within the 21st century, there is the urgent need to re-assess the long-term targets of the EU and to show how the target of GHG neutrality can be reached in the EU. The aim of this study was to design one way to realize a European Union with net-zero greenhouse gas emissions under further sustainability criteria. The scenario shows that a GHG-neutral EU is feasible, based on a fully decarbonized energy supply, without carbon capture and storage. Key components of the scenario in all energy-consuming sectors are a strong increase in energy efficiency as well as far-reaching electrification. The use of bioenergy is strongly limited.
[en] The Paris Agreement takes a bottom-up approach to tackling climate change with parties submitting pledges in the form of nationally determined contributions (NDCs). Studies show that the sum of these national pledges falls short of meeting the agreement’s 2 °C target. To explore this discrepancy, we analyse individual pledges and classify them into four categories. By doing so, a lack of consistency and transparency is highlighted, which we correct for by performing a normalisation that makes pledges directly comparable. This involves calculating changes in emissions by 2030, using data for the most recent base year of 2015. We find that pledges framed in terms of absolute emission reductions against historical base years generally produce the greatest ambition, with average emission reductions of 16% by 2030. Pledges defined as GDP intensity targets perform the worst with average emission increases of 61% by 2030. We propose that a normalisation procedure of the type as we develop becomes part of the NDC process. It will allow to not only increase the transparency of pledges for policymakers and wider society, but also promote more effective NDCs upon revision as is foreseen to happen every 5 years under the ‘ratcheting mechanism’ of the agreement. (letter)
[en] The signing of the Paris climate agreement and sustainable development goals demonstrated an international commitment to halting climate change, increasing energy access, and maintaining biodiversity. Successful implementation requires rapidly expanding renewable energy development, which has a large land footprint and can conflict with maintaining natural lands. To quantify the potential to mediate this land conflict, we converted emission reduction commitments submitted as part of the Paris agreement into actionable energy targets, and assessed whether they can be met by developing renewables on converted lands and waters of lower biodiversity and carbon value. The world has 19 times the required energy targets on converted lands, and most countries, including the top ten emitters, can meet the Paris agreement goals. Furthermore, regions (e.g. Africa) that will experience substantial population growth and that currently have limited energy infrastructure can meet their Paris agreement and future energy targets by developing renewable energy on already converted lands. Guiding renewable energy development to converted lands presents opportunities for sustainable development, but also requires incentives and proactive planning to ensure expansion does not exacerbate other environmental challenges. (letter)