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[en] The Paris Agreement aims to achieve climate neutrality i.e. a balance between the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and GHG sinks by the mid of this century. Since energy consumption is responsihle for roughly three quarters of the global GHG emissions, there has always been a strong focus on the related GHG sources. The focus on the climate debate so far has been on electricity generation, but in the last years, also the future mobility is gaining increasing attention.
[en] According to its article 2, the Paris Agreement PA aims at, inter alia, "Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels ... ". Paragraph 21 of the Decision, the document that explains the general thinking of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UNFCCC as they adopted the PA in 2015, "Invites the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC] to provide a special report in 2018 on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways."
[en] The Convention of 31 January 1963 Supplementary to the Paris Convention of 29 July 1960, as amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964 and by the Protocol of 16 November 1982, is currently into force. On 12 February 2004, the Contracting Parties to the Brussels Supplementary Convention signed the Protocol to Amend the Brussels Supplementary Convention, which has not yet entered into force. On 23 December 2010, the Contracting Parties to the Brussels Supplementary Convention adopted this Expose des Motifs of the Brussels Supplementary Convention as amended by the 2004 Protocol, which is of an explanatory nature. Please note that there is no Expose des Motifs of the Brussels Supplementary Convention currently in force
[en] The Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960, as amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964 and by the Protocol of 16 November 1982, is currently in force and has an Expose des Motifs adopted in 1982, which is available on the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency web site. On 12 February 2004, the Contracting Parties to the Paris Convention signed the Protocol to Amend the Paris Convention, which has not yet entered into force. On 18 November 2016, the Contracting Parties to the Paris Convention adopted this Expose des Motifs of the Paris Convention as amended by the 2004 Protocol, which is of an explanatory nature.
[en] The governments being parties to the convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, considering that the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, established within the framework of the OECD, is charged with encouraging the elaboration and harmonisation of legislation relating to nuclear energy in participating countries, in particular with regard to third party liability and insurance against atomic risks; desirous of ensuring adequate and equitable compensation for persons who suffer damage caused by nuclear incidents whilst taking the necessary steps to ensure that the development of the production and uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is not thereby hindered; convinced of the need for unifying the basic rules applying in the various countries to the liability incurred for such damage, whilst leaving these countries free to take, on a national basis, any additional measures which they deem appropriate; have agreed the content of this convention
[en] This Recommendation was adopted at the 136. Session of the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy held on 19-20 April 2018. This Recommendation aims at strengthening the common understanding with regard to the definition of the term 'final stage of fabrication' in Article 1(a)(iv) of the Paris Convention and with regard to the temporal effect of the exclusion of radioisotopes which have reached the final stage of fabrication. The principle is that once the radioisotopes have reached the final stage of fabrication and have left the nuclear installation where they reached that stage (i.e. the 'nuclear installation of origin'), they will no longer be covered by the Paris Convention
[en] This Recommendation was adopted on 12 February 2004 by the Diplomatic Conference convened to adopt and sign the 2004 Protocols to amend the Paris and Brussels Supplementary Convention (Annex III of the Final Act of the Conference, which is available at www.oecd-nea.org/law/final-act-conference-revision-pc-bc.pdf). Full text of publication follows: The Conference, Considering that, pursuant to Article 15(b) of the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960, as amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964, by the Protocol of 16 November 1982 and by the Protocol of 12 February 2004 (hereinafter referred to as the 'Paris Convention'), a Contracting Party may derogate from the provisions of that Convention insofar as compensation for nuclear damage is in excess of 700 million euro; Considering that, pursuant to Article 3(f) of the Convention of 31 January 1963 Supplementary to the Paris Convention of 29 July 1960, as amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964, by the Protocol of 16 November 1982 and by the Protocol of 12 February 2004 (hereinafter referred to as the 'Brussels Supplementary Convention'), a Contracting Party may not, in carrying out that Convention, make use of the right provided for in Article 15(b) of the Paris Convention to apply special conditions, other than those laid down in the Brussels Supplementary Convention itself, to the compensation of nuclear damage using funds referred to in that latter Convention; Desirous of clarifying the right of a Contracting Party to establish conditions of reciprocity for the compensation of nuclear damage using funds which remain available under the Paris Convention after having satisfied its obligations under the Brussels Supplementary Convention; Recommends that if a Contracting Party to the Brussels Supplementary Convention has satisfied its obligations under that Convention up to the amount referred to in Article 3(a) thereof, if the amount of nuclear damage to be compensated exceeds the aforementioned amount and if funds remain available, whether provided by insurance or other financial security pursuant to Article 10 of the Paris Convention or by public funds pursuant to national legislation enacted prior to the nuclear incident which requires that a specified amount of public funds will be provided to compensate nuclear damage, it should not make use of the right provided for in Article 15(b) of the Paris Convention to apply special conditions to the compensation of nuclear damage using such remaining funds in respect of: a) a State referred to in Article 2(a)(i), (ii) or (iv) of the Paris Convention which, at the time of the nuclear incident, has a nuclear installation in its territory or in any maritime zone established by it in accordance with international law and which affords reciprocal benefits of an equivalent amount; b) any other State which, at the time of the nuclear incident, has no nuclear installation in its territory or in any maritime zone established by it in accordance with international law; Recommends that the Contracting Parties to the Brussels Supplementary Convention should notify the Secretary-General of the OECD of the steps that they have taken to implement this Recommendation; Invites the Secretary-General of the OECD to communicate any such notification to all Contracting Parties.
[en] We live a climate emergency. This is a fight for our lives. This is a fight we must win. Business as usual is no longer an option. Everywhere, people demand more vigorous and quick action to stop climate change. Everyone wants a sustainable future. Everyone wants to live on a clean, green and healthy planet. It is our responsibility to listen to them. And achieve results. We have very little time left. The window to act is closing fast, though 2019 and 2020 give us a chance, which could be the last. To stop runaway climate change, to avoid more weather disasters, to avoid more suffering, nations need to use all options at their disposal to update their climate action plans under the Paris Agreement by 2020. We need these plans to be much more ambitious than they are now. Because we are going in the wrong direction. We need to adapt to a changing climate. We need to stabilize the global temperature rise at 1.5°C. But we are on route to an increase of more than double. And this means an uncertain future for humanity. What is the conclusion? We need more climate ambition. And we need it now. Your conference provides an opportunity to advance. You can help those nations willing to do so to consider or strengthen their use of nuclear power.
[en] • It is important to identify, understand and make use of all entry points and cooperation mechanisms for supporting those Parties willing to consider or strengthen nuclear power to address climate change. • IAEA and other organizations working on nuclear power should actively seek to contribute to the relevant processes under the Paris Agreement, including the global stockade. • The findings of this conference should be considered together with the findings of previous conferences on nuclear science and applications (e.g., contributions to adaptation and transformation in general).
[en] Leading global energy scenarios highlight the need for nuclear power to play a larger role in climate change mitigation to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement. Together with other low carbon technologies, nuclear energy can supply increasing demands for electricity and non-electric energy up to 2050 as part of a sustainable energy transition. Scenario studies from a range of organizations imply that a policy and market environment that unlocks the mitigation potential of nuclear power will enable countries to adopt more ambitious targets in their Nationally Determined Contributions under the Paris Agreement. (author)