Results 1 - 10 of 1565
Results 1 - 10 of 1565. Search took: 0.024 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] Japan was mandated to achieve under the Kyoto Protocol is a 6% reduction compared with 1990 in the period from 2008 to 2012. All countries, even developing countries, should be included and discussed in any plan. It must be flexible and there must be diversity. A high value is placed on making the best use of technology for conservation of energy etc., and to unite environmental preservation and economic development. Plasma processes are carried out in either the high-temperature environment of transferred and non-transferred plasmas or at pressures low enough to give large active volumes with higher electron and lower gas temperature glow discharge plasmas. Several eligible non-thermal plasma technologies are already finished for small scale pilot test, and are already in the stage of commercialization. (author)
[en] The present paper reviews the international climate change financial framework and aims at providing insights on its future post-2012 development. This study offers an overview of the good attributes and distortions of the current regime, while investigating the work currently done by many countries and international organisation, in proposing unique and original financial schemes for a post-Kyoto agreement. The objective is to define potential strengths and shortcomings of the current (or projected) financial regime, and put this in relation with the creation of an improved new financing scheme, that could transfer sufficient resources from North to South in an efficient, transparent and participatory way. Indeed, international climate change negotiations are now working in this direction, and the regular submissions from Parties and civil society to the UNFCCC's AWG-LCA witness the desire of governments and organisations to achieve an innovative climate change agreement that could overcome existing weaknesses in the global financial structure, while providing nations with suitable tools to handle the adverse consequences of climatic modifications. The paper will additionally focus on the role of CDM and credit-based mechanisms in a new future financial framework, in consideration of needed improvements in the current international credit system and country visions and AWG-LCA submissions.
[en] The ethical dimension of climate change and the problem of fairness in implementing Kyoto Protocol and the post-Kyoto phase have become the hinge around which the negotiating process can be re launched or definitely blocked. This article discusses some aspects of the international debate that can be useful in understanding the issues. ENEA conducts no programmatic activities of its own in this field, but, as the national Focal Point for IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), it participates in the international exchange of information on the subject
[it]Etica dei cambiamenti climatici ed equita' nell'attuazione del protocollo di Kyoto sono i cardini attorno ai quali il processo negoziale puo' essere rilanciato o puo' definitivamente bloccarsi
[en] This report was prepared as background material for renewal of the national Energy and Climate Strategy. The first chapter of the report highlights the premises set for Strategy preparation by the Government programme and statements by Parliament. The second chapter describes the international operating environment and recent changes therein, while chapters 3 and 4 include an outlook of greenhouse gas emissions in Finland and the EU. Chapters 5 to 8 of the report suggest procedures for managing Finland's greenhouse gas emission obligations with the methods currently in use, both during the Kyoto obligation period and after it. In addition, the impacts of emission obligations with different objectives are described for the time after the Kyoto obligation period with regards to Finland's emission balances. Chapters 9 and 10 review the development of the energy market and other key sectors in relation to the objectives set for energy and climate policy. Chapter 11 discusses Finland's goals for negotiations on limiting emissions after the year 2012, and chapter 12 reviews domestic measures in use for implementing the strategy. Numerous studies have been commissioned in preparing the strategy, evaluating the impacts of various factors on the energy market, energy costs for energy consumers, the public finances and aggregates of national economy - such as gross domestic product - households' consumption expenditure, employment and production in various producing sectors. Chapter 13 summarises the key results of these studies. The background report is produced in co-operation with several ministries (the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Ministry of Transport and Communications, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of the Environment) so that each has been responsible for the production and acquisition of material within its own branch of administration. The Ministry of Trade and Industry has co-ordinated the actual writing of the report. This report has not been discussed by the ministerial working group responsible for the preparation of the Strategy or by the Government. (orig.)
[en] The growth of both the demography and the economy, is leading to impacts on the environment. In the first place of them, the greenhouse gases increase are responsible of the climatic change. The main part of theses gases are produced by the energy production from fossil fuels. Other are produced by the heavy industry or by the agriculture. This book presents the today effects and solutions to avoid. (A.L.B.)
[en] The responsibility for nuclear security rests entirely with each State. There is no single international instrument that addresses nuclear security in a comprehensive manner. The legal foundation for nuclear security comprises international instruments and recognized principles that are implemented by national authorities. Security systems at the national level will contribute to a strengthened and more universal system of nuclear security at the international level. The binding security treaties are; Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, the 2005 amendment thereto, Safeguards Agreements between the Agency and states required in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Model Protocol additional to agreement(s) between State(s) and the Agency for the application of Safeguards Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, Convention on Nuclear Safety, Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management
[en] The responsibility for nuclear security rests entirely with each individual state. However,states need to work together to enhance collective nuclear security. There are international legal instruments that provide a strategic framework and a common platform for such cooperation. Among such legally binding security related instruments are: Convention on the physical protection of Nuclear materials, Convention on the early notification of nuclear accident and the International convention for the Suppression of acts of Nuclear Terrorism.