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[en] In accordance with the main objective for 2014, ARSN has been able to train its staff with the help of IAEA (Zimbabwe (2013) and Tunisia (2014)) training on the use of SARIS software. ARSN is now able to perform self-assessment including all phases: preparation, response, analysis and action plan. The recommendations of the action plan for 2014 have been implemented or are being considered for implementation.
[en] The Paris Agreement aims to achieve climate neutrality i.e. a balance between the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and GHG sinks by the mid of this century. Since energy consumption is responsihle for roughly three quarters of the global GHG emissions, there has always been a strong focus on the related GHG sources. The focus on the climate debate so far has been on electricity generation, but in the last years, also the future mobility is gaining increasing attention.
[en] The Kyoto protocol has established an accounting system for national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions according to a geographic criterion (producer perspective), such as that proposed by the IPCC guidelines for national GHG inventories. However, the representativeness of this approach is still being debated, because the role of final consumers (consumer perspective) is not considered in the emission allocation system. This paper explores the usefulness of a hybrid analysis, including input–output (IO) and process inventory data, as a complementary tool for estimating and allocating national GHG emissions according to both consumer- and producer-based perspectives. We assess the historical GHG impact profile (from 1995 to 2009) of Luxembourg, which is taken as a case study. The country's net consumption over time is estimated to generate about 28,700 Gg CO_2e/year on average. Compared to the conventional IPCC inventory, the IO-based framework typically shows much higher emission estimations. This relevant discrepancy is mainly due to the different points of view obtained from the hybrid model, in particular with regard to the contribution of imported goods and services. Detailing the GHG inventory by economic activity and considering a wider system boundary make the hybrid IO method advantageous as compared to the IPCC approach, but its effective implementation is still limited by the relatively complex modeling system, as well as the lack of coordination and scarce availability of datasets at the national level. - Highlights: • GHG emissions for Luxembourg are assessed using hybrid input–output (IO) modeling. • Consumer and producer perspectives are compared for the period 1995–2009. • IO-based GHG profiles are remarkably higher than traditional IPCC inventorying. • IO-based GHG accounting presents some advantages but is limited in implementation. • Key-aspects of IPCC and IO-based methods are extensively investigated and compared
[en] United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol have initiated an awareness of the necessity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and have provided guidelines of the energy in the world, especially within the European Union. EU sets its action within the negotiations on a new global agreement in the field of climate change, for the period after the 2020. Croatia, also, has to follow these guidelines. Therefore, Croatia conducts activities to develop low-carbon development strategy and to establish the legal and institutional framework for the successful implementation of measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.(author)
[en] On 8 May 2016, the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) finally entered into force, almost eleven years after its adoption. The world will be a more secure place as a result of the commitments that States party to the Amendment have made. The Amendment establishes legally binding commitments for countries to protect nuclear facilities as well as nuclear material in domestic use, storage and transport. Under the Amendment, countries are required to establish appropriate physical protection regimes for nuclear material. They also take on new obligations to share information on sabotage, including on credible threats of sabotage. The entry into force of the Amendment demonstrates the international community’s resolve to act together to strengthen nuclear security globally. It also helps reduce the risk of an attack involving nuclear material, which could have catastrophic consequences.
[en] According to its article 2, the Paris Agreement PA aims at, inter alia, "Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels ... ". Paragraph 21 of the Decision, the document that explains the general thinking of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UNFCCC as they adopted the PA in 2015, "Invites the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC] to provide a special report in 2018 on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways."
[en] The clean development mechanism (CDM) is a global collaborative action proposed at the Kyoto Protocol in response to climate change issues. The CDM contributes to cost-efficient reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in industrialized countries and promotes sustainable development in developing countries. Its fundamental framework is based on partnerships between industrialized and developing countries. This study employs social network analysis to investigate the dynamics of the partnership networks observed in 3816 CDM projects registered in the database of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change over the period of 2005 to 2011. Our three main findings can be summarized as follows. First, the CDM partnership network is a small world; however, its density tends to decrease as the number of participants for a CDM project decreases. Second, the partnership networks’ leading groups tend to shift from partner countries into host countries. Third, a host country that pursues more partnership-based projects takes better control of resources and knowledge-flow in the ego-network formed around that country, and can thus better utilize global resources for its CDM projects. - Highlights: ► We investigate dynamics of the international partnership networks of CDM projects. ► The density of CDM networks tends to decrease by time. ► The partnership networks’ leading groups tend to shift into host countries. ► A host country with more partnerships better utilizes global knowledge resources.
[en] The Convention of 31 January 1963 Supplementary to the Paris Convention of 29 July 1960, as amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964 and by the Protocol of 16 November 1982, is currently into force. On 12 February 2004, the Contracting Parties to the Brussels Supplementary Convention signed the Protocol to Amend the Brussels Supplementary Convention, which has not yet entered into force. On 23 December 2010, the Contracting Parties to the Brussels Supplementary Convention adopted this Expose des Motifs of the Brussels Supplementary Convention as amended by the 2004 Protocol, which is of an explanatory nature. Please note that there is no Expose des Motifs of the Brussels Supplementary Convention currently in force
[en] The article discusses the political results of the Copenhagen Conference and evolutions in the international climate arena including geopolitical shifts, new issues on the agenda and a changing cartography of the main actors. As recent attacks on the climate regime concern both its political governance and the peculiar relationship between science and politics that developed through its main institutions (IPCC and the Conference of the Parties), we retrace in a first part the construction of the climate arena and in a second part the framing of the problem between climate science, expertise, and politics. Drawing on this historical sketch, we suggest the years 2000 were characterized by a convergence of top-down approaches in climate expertise and policies, structuring action and discourse around quantified reduction targets, temperature and concentration thresholds, and carbon budgets. The bottom-up character of the voluntary reduction commitments in the Copenhagen Accord is a serious setback to this approach. A central figure in this context is the threshold of 'dangerous warming' of two degrees. The Copenhagen Accord - endorsed in the Cancun compromise - elevates this figure to an official target of the U.N. negotiation process, thereby accentuating the tension between a newly assumed 'Real politic' and an alarming expertise. The article analyzes the construction of the two-degrees target and the role it plays in the climate regime. We conclude by discussing several contributions to the Post-Copenhagen debate. (authors)
[en] Burden sharing in the actions needed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions has proved so far to be the most intractable problem in the implementation of the Climate Convention and the Kyoto Protocol. We analyzed the contribution of non-Annex I countries to the GHG emissions in the period 1850–2010 to assess their relative contribution to total GHG emissions. In the period 1850–1990 non-Annex I countries represented 44% of the total but this contribution increased in the period 1990–2010 to 56%. If we extrapolate present trends to 2030 they will represent 69% in the period 1990–2030. The “historical responsibility” of Annex I countries is therefore decreasing. If we take 1990 as the starting year in which the Climate Convention recognized clearly that greenhouse gases are interfering dangerously with the climate system, it is evident the need of non-Annex I countries to engage with Annex I countries in the effort to reduce emissions. We present three options for the burden sharing in such effort. -- Highlights: •Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol did not reduce global GHG emissions growth. •Defining burden sharing of emissions is key to the success of climate negotiations. •Accounting for historical emissions involves too many uncertainties. •Developed countries have already presented pledges to reduce their emissions by 2020. •Emissions of developing countries became dominant and they must act to reduce them