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[en] This part treats five articles whom titles follow: International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (2005); Entry into Force of the Kyoto Protocol (2005); Third Review Meeting of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (2005)Generation 4 International Forum (GIF) (2005); Status of Conventions in the field of nuclear energy. (N.C.)
[en] With the recent progress in Bonn and Marrakech on the details required for implementing the Kyoto Protocol, entry into force in 2003 is now a possibility. This paper assesses the potential macroeconomic impacts of the Kyoto Protocol, given the recent negotiated developments. In addition, given the recent attempts in the literature to model endogenous technical change in general equilibrium models, a new methodology for incorporating the induced innovations hypothesis into a general equilibrium model is described and implemented. In line with previous work, it is found that incorporation of the hypothesis reduces abatement costs. (author)
[en] The present paper reviews the international climate change financial framework and aims at providing insights on its future post-2012 development. This study offers an overview of the good attributes and distortions of the current regime, while investigating the work currently done by many countries and international organisation, in proposing unique and original financial schemes for a post-Kyoto agreement. The objective is to define potential strengths and shortcomings of the current (or projected) financial regime, and put this in relation with the creation of an improved new financing scheme, that could transfer sufficient resources from North to South in an efficient, transparent and participatory way. Indeed, international climate change negotiations are now working in this direction, and the regular submissions from Parties and civil society to the UNFCCC's AWG-LCA witness the desire of governments and organisations to achieve an innovative climate change agreement that could overcome existing weaknesses in the global financial structure, while providing nations with suitable tools to handle the adverse consequences of climatic modifications. The paper will additionally focus on the role of CDM and credit-based mechanisms in a new future financial framework, in consideration of needed improvements in the current international credit system and country visions and AWG-LCA submissions.
[en] There is a concern in many countries that introducing a tradeable greenhouse-gas quota system may lead to closures of emission-intensive industrial companies. Jebjerg and Lando argue in an article published previously by this Journal that shutdowns can be prevented by a generous distribution of free quotas. However, this is only true if the quotas are distributed contingent on continued production. Some of the practical problems with conditional allocation of free tradeable quotas can be avoided by letting all free quotas be non-tradeable
[en] This paper gathers results from 25 models of the market for tradable greenhouse gas (GHG) emission permits under the Kyoto Protocol. Due to diverging projections of emissions growth and different modeling approaches, the model results differ substantially. The average market volume is approximately 17 and 33 billion USD under global trading and Annex B trading, respectively. Including non-carbon GHG lowers compliance costs and permit prices. In the absence of the US, permit demand roughly equals 'hot air' from the former Soviet Union. These countries can increase their revenues from selling permits by restricting supply, which raises the permit price
[en] The Kyoto protocol has established an accounting system for national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions according to a geographic criterion (producer perspective), such as that proposed by the IPCC guidelines for national GHG inventories. However, the representativeness of this approach is still being debated, because the role of final consumers (consumer perspective) is not considered in the emission allocation system. This paper explores the usefulness of a hybrid analysis, including input–output (IO) and process inventory data, as a complementary tool for estimating and allocating national GHG emissions according to both consumer- and producer-based perspectives. We assess the historical GHG impact profile (from 1995 to 2009) of Luxembourg, which is taken as a case study. The country's net consumption over time is estimated to generate about 28,700 Gg CO_2e/year on average. Compared to the conventional IPCC inventory, the IO-based framework typically shows much higher emission estimations. This relevant discrepancy is mainly due to the different points of view obtained from the hybrid model, in particular with regard to the contribution of imported goods and services. Detailing the GHG inventory by economic activity and considering a wider system boundary make the hybrid IO method advantageous as compared to the IPCC approach, but its effective implementation is still limited by the relatively complex modeling system, as well as the lack of coordination and scarce availability of datasets at the national level. - Highlights: • GHG emissions for Luxembourg are assessed using hybrid input–output (IO) modeling. • Consumer and producer perspectives are compared for the period 1995–2009. • IO-based GHG profiles are remarkably higher than traditional IPCC inventorying. • IO-based GHG accounting presents some advantages but is limited in implementation. • Key-aspects of IPCC and IO-based methods are extensively investigated and compared
[en] The Paris Agreement aims to achieve climate neutrality i.e. a balance between the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and GHG sinks by the mid of this century. Since energy consumption is responsihle for roughly three quarters of the global GHG emissions, there has always been a strong focus on the related GHG sources. The focus on the climate debate so far has been on electricity generation, but in the last years, also the future mobility is gaining increasing attention.