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[en] In the first part of this report an overview is given of the energy version of WorldScan, which is a dynamic multi-region, multi-sector applied general equilibrium model. The second part presents applications, concerning the medium term (Kyoto protocol) and the long run (stabilization scenarios). Finally, one of the appendices presents an overview of the WorldScan User Support System (WUSS), which we developed as part of this project. WUSS visualizes a database with WorldScan model simulations and includes the new IPCC-SRES baselines and post-SRES stabilization scenarios. The analyses presented in this report show that some countries will gain and some will lose from implementing the Kyoto Protocol (KP). However, the USA does not ratify the Protocol, and this will economically benefit the other OECD countries and burdens the former Soviet Union and the global environment. The KP will imply a cost to the Non-Annex B energy exporters such as the Middle East. But in globalizing worlds they may gain, because of lower trade barriers that encourage relocation of energy-intensive production from Annex B towards the Middle East. The phenomenon 'carbon leakage' undermines the effectiveness of the KP. In the long run, non-Annex B countries will have to reduce emissions to stabilize greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. Global emission trading is the instrument that allows for allocations of emission permits to non-Annex B that compensate them for any losses without sacrificing economic efficiency. 42 refs
[en] This report was prepared as background material for renewal of the national Energy and Climate Strategy. The first chapter of the report highlights the premises set for Strategy preparation by the Government programme and statements by Parliament. The second chapter describes the international operating environment and recent changes therein, while chapters 3 and 4 include an outlook of greenhouse gas emissions in Finland and the EU. Chapters 5 to 8 of the report suggest procedures for managing Finland's greenhouse gas emission obligations with the methods currently in use, both during the Kyoto obligation period and after it. In addition, the impacts of emission obligations with different objectives are described for the time after the Kyoto obligation period with regards to Finland's emission balances. Chapters 9 and 10 review the development of the energy market and other key sectors in relation to the objectives set for energy and climate policy. Chapter 11 discusses Finland's goals for negotiations on limiting emissions after the year 2012, and chapter 12 reviews domestic measures in use for implementing the strategy. Numerous studies have been commissioned in preparing the strategy, evaluating the impacts of various factors on the energy market, energy costs for energy consumers, the public finances and aggregates of national economy - such as gross domestic product - households' consumption expenditure, employment and production in various producing sectors. Chapter 13 summarises the key results of these studies. The background report is produced in co-operation with several ministries (the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the Ministry of Transport and Communications, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of the Environment) so that each has been responsible for the production and acquisition of material within its own branch of administration. The Ministry of Trade and Industry has co-ordinated the actual writing of the report. This report has not been discussed by the ministerial working group responsible for the preparation of the Strategy or by the Government. (orig.)
[en] The Convention of 31 January 1963 Supplementary to the Paris Convention of 29 July 1960, as amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964 and by the Protocol of 16 November 1982, is currently into force. On 12 February 2004, the Contracting Parties to the Brussels Supplementary Convention signed the Protocol to Amend the Brussels Supplementary Convention, which has not yet entered into force. On 23 December 2010, the Contracting Parties to the Brussels Supplementary Convention adopted this Expose des Motifs of the Brussels Supplementary Convention as amended by the 2004 Protocol, which is of an explanatory nature. Please note that there is no Expose des Motifs of the Brussels Supplementary Convention currently in force
[en] The Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960, as amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964 and by the Protocol of 16 November 1982, is currently in force and has an Expose des Motifs adopted in 1982, which is available on the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency web site. On 12 February 2004, the Contracting Parties to the Paris Convention signed the Protocol to Amend the Paris Convention, which has not yet entered into force. On 18 November 2016, the Contracting Parties to the Paris Convention adopted this Expose des Motifs of the Paris Convention as amended by the 2004 Protocol, which is of an explanatory nature.
[en] The governments being parties to the convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, considering that the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, established within the framework of the OECD, is charged with encouraging the elaboration and harmonisation of legislation relating to nuclear energy in participating countries, in particular with regard to third party liability and insurance against atomic risks; desirous of ensuring adequate and equitable compensation for persons who suffer damage caused by nuclear incidents whilst taking the necessary steps to ensure that the development of the production and uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is not thereby hindered; convinced of the need for unifying the basic rules applying in the various countries to the liability incurred for such damage, whilst leaving these countries free to take, on a national basis, any additional measures which they deem appropriate; have agreed the content of this convention
[en] This paper investigates the occurrences at the Sixth Conference of the Parties (CoP) to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) which took place in The Hague, Netherlands, from 13-25 November of 2000. Since the conference did not reach an agreement there exists a broad interest in knowing what really happened during the negotiations. The aim of the analysis is to give greater insight to reasons of the climate talks' failure and to progress made during the negotiations. Following the discussions of the issues surrounding the talks in The Hague, the paper will also look forward as to possible solutions and ideas for an eventual agreement
[en] Given that safety is the number one priority for the nuclear industry, it would seem normal that procedures exist to ensure the effective implementation of the provisions of the conventions on nuclear safety, as already exist for numerous international treaties. Unfortunately, these procedures are either weak or even nonexistent. Therefore, consideration must be given to whether this weakness represents a genuine deficiency in ensuring the main objective of these conventions, which is to achieve a high level of nuclear safety worldwide. But, before one can even address that issue, a prior question must be answered: does the specific nature of the international legal framework on nuclear safety automatically result in a lack of non-compliance procedures in international conventions on the subject? If so, the lack of procedures is justified, despite the drawbacks. The specific nature of the international law on nuclear safety, which in 1994 shaped the content of the CNS by notably not 'allowing' (even today) the incorporation of precise international rules have been taken into account. The next step is to examine whether the absence of non-compliance procedures (which could have been integrated into the text) is a hindrance in ensuring the objectives of the conventions on nuclear safety, and to examine the procedures that could have been used, based on existing provisions in other areas of international law (environmental law, financial law, disarmament law, human rights, etc.). International environmental law will be the main source of this study, as it has certain similarities with the international law on nuclear safety due to the sometimes vague nature of its obligations and irrespective of the fact that one of the purposes of nuclear safety is in particular to protect the environment from radiological hazards. Indeed, the provisions of the law on nuclear safety are mainly technical and designed to guarantee the normal operation of nuclear facilities, but there are also provisions designed to prevent or reduce the consequences of nuclear incidents or accidents on people and the environment. While the first set of provisions may, in certain respects, be considered as outside the scope of environmental law, the second set is more akin to this area of law, and it could even be considered that the provisions of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management only cover the protection of the environment, as the most harmful consequence of a safety breach would be a contamination of flora and fauna, with no harmful effects for people if mitigating measures are taken as soon as the contamination is discovered. After presenting the general issue of the implementation of treaties, the article will review the different 'tools' (non-compliance procedures) available under international environmental law to enforce treaty obligations. The article will then examine how the conventions on nuclear safety deal with the problem of non-compliance by analysing the strengths and weaknesses of their provisions in this area and how they fare in comparison to the possibilities available under international environmental law by taking into account the specific nature of nuclear safety. Particular attention will be placed on the reasons behind the special importance of peer reviews in obtaining 'the highest level of safety' when, while not completely non-existent, they do not have the same place in environmental conventions. (author)
[en] The developing countries of Asia are amongst the largest contributors to the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases as well as being amongst those most likely to be impacted by global climate change. There are at present no legal requirements for the Asian developing countries to reduce their emissions, however, the medium and long-term impact of global climate change is likely to be proportionately larger for the developing countries than for the industrialized countries, since the latter have the resources to reduce the adverse impacts. Therefore, it is of great interest of the developing countries, as well as the rest of the world, to have longer-term goals for stabilizing their greenhouse gas emissions, and taking actions during the medium term to achieve these goals. Asia is home to about 50% of the world's population, and there is great variation in the levels of industrialization and contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. A differentiated strategy for addressing concerns related to global climate change may be appropriate for the Asian developing countries at this time. Some elements of this strategy are discussed in this paper. Development in energy technology present several attractive options for the developing countries. However, their introduction and successful use depends at least as much on the existence of the necessary infrastructure as on the attractiveness of the technologies themselves. It is suggested that international and bilateral development agencies, as well as the countries themselves, consider the accelerated development of such infrastructure as a major way to contribute to the efforts to address global climate change. (BA)
[en] This Recommendation was adopted at the 136. Session of the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy held on 19-20 April 2018. This Recommendation aims at strengthening the common understanding with regard to the definition of the term 'final stage of fabrication' in Article 1(a)(iv) of the Paris Convention and with regard to the temporal effect of the exclusion of radioisotopes which have reached the final stage of fabrication. The principle is that once the radioisotopes have reached the final stage of fabrication and have left the nuclear installation where they reached that stage (i.e. the 'nuclear installation of origin'), they will no longer be covered by the Paris Convention
[en] This Recommendation was adopted on 12 February 2004 by the Diplomatic Conference convened to adopt and sign the 2004 Protocols to amend the Paris and Brussels Supplementary Convention (Annex III of the Final Act of the Conference, which is available at www.oecd-nea.org/law/final-act-conference-revision-pc-bc.pdf). Full text of publication follows: The Conference, Considering that, pursuant to Article 15(b) of the Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy of 29 July 1960, as amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964, by the Protocol of 16 November 1982 and by the Protocol of 12 February 2004 (hereinafter referred to as the 'Paris Convention'), a Contracting Party may derogate from the provisions of that Convention insofar as compensation for nuclear damage is in excess of 700 million euro; Considering that, pursuant to Article 3(f) of the Convention of 31 January 1963 Supplementary to the Paris Convention of 29 July 1960, as amended by the Additional Protocol of 28 January 1964, by the Protocol of 16 November 1982 and by the Protocol of 12 February 2004 (hereinafter referred to as the 'Brussels Supplementary Convention'), a Contracting Party may not, in carrying out that Convention, make use of the right provided for in Article 15(b) of the Paris Convention to apply special conditions, other than those laid down in the Brussels Supplementary Convention itself, to the compensation of nuclear damage using funds referred to in that latter Convention; Desirous of clarifying the right of a Contracting Party to establish conditions of reciprocity for the compensation of nuclear damage using funds which remain available under the Paris Convention after having satisfied its obligations under the Brussels Supplementary Convention; Recommends that if a Contracting Party to the Brussels Supplementary Convention has satisfied its obligations under that Convention up to the amount referred to in Article 3(a) thereof, if the amount of nuclear damage to be compensated exceeds the aforementioned amount and if funds remain available, whether provided by insurance or other financial security pursuant to Article 10 of the Paris Convention or by public funds pursuant to national legislation enacted prior to the nuclear incident which requires that a specified amount of public funds will be provided to compensate nuclear damage, it should not make use of the right provided for in Article 15(b) of the Paris Convention to apply special conditions to the compensation of nuclear damage using such remaining funds in respect of: a) a State referred to in Article 2(a)(i), (ii) or (iv) of the Paris Convention which, at the time of the nuclear incident, has a nuclear installation in its territory or in any maritime zone established by it in accordance with international law and which affords reciprocal benefits of an equivalent amount; b) any other State which, at the time of the nuclear incident, has no nuclear installation in its territory or in any maritime zone established by it in accordance with international law; Recommends that the Contracting Parties to the Brussels Supplementary Convention should notify the Secretary-General of the OECD of the steps that they have taken to implement this Recommendation; Invites the Secretary-General of the OECD to communicate any such notification to all Contracting Parties.