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[en] This document presents the positions of the countries in transition and the developing countries in the phase of the negotiations on the climatic change between 1994 and 1997, then takes stock on the pilot phase of the actions of the associated implementation. The negotiations stakes and the frame of the discussions are also presented. (A.L.B.)
[en] With the recent progress in Bonn and Marrakech on the details required for implementing the Kyoto Protocol, entry into force in 2003 is now a possibility. This paper assesses the potential macroeconomic impacts of the Kyoto Protocol, given the recent negotiated developments. In addition, given the recent attempts in the literature to model endogenous technical change in general equilibrium models, a new methodology for incorporating the induced innovations hypothesis into a general equilibrium model is described and implemented. In line with previous work, it is found that incorporation of the hypothesis reduces abatement costs. (author)
[en] There is a concern in many countries that introducing a tradeable greenhouse-gas quota system may lead to closures of emission-intensive industrial companies. Jebjerg and Lando argue in an article published previously by this Journal that shutdowns can be prevented by a generous distribution of free quotas. However, this is only true if the quotas are distributed contingent on continued production. Some of the practical problems with conditional allocation of free tradeable quotas can be avoided by letting all free quotas be non-tradeable
[en] This paper gathers results from 25 models of the market for tradable greenhouse gas (GHG) emission permits under the Kyoto Protocol. Due to diverging projections of emissions growth and different modeling approaches, the model results differ substantially. The average market volume is approximately 17 and 33 billion USD under global trading and Annex B trading, respectively. Including non-carbon GHG lowers compliance costs and permit prices. In the absence of the US, permit demand roughly equals 'hot air' from the former Soviet Union. These countries can increase their revenues from selling permits by restricting supply, which raises the permit price
[en] While uptake of renewable energies as a solution to climate change is widely discussed, the issue of public vs. private financing is not yet adequately explored. The debates over the Kyoto Protocol and its successor, culminating in the COP15 Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in December 2009, maintained a strong preference for public over private financing. Yet it is also clear to most observers that the energy revolution will never happen without the involvement of private finance to drive private investment. In this Viewpoint, we discuss the ways in which private financing could be mobilized to drive the energy industrial revolution that is needed if climate change mitigation is to succeed.
[en] The European Union (EU) Commission has adopted a Green Paper to prepare the introduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading as a potential tool for climate change policy within the EU. When similar action was undertaken in the US Acid Rain Program in the beginning of the 1990s, the most controversial feature was that of initial allocation of permits. However, in the EU context, the political and economic implications have not been discussed in detail yet. Therefore, our contribution is to focus on a politically feasible allocation method by considering how these GHG permits should be allocated at both the national and at the power plant level. Our policy recommendation is twofold. First, a proportional rollback of the emissions defined by the Burden Sharing Agreement is a suitable starting point concerning allocation at the national level. Second, a common grandfathered distribution principle, such as an allocation of permits to individual power plants based on a percentage reduction of the current size of emissions, is to be preferred over an allocation principle based on past emissions. (author)
[en] Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol authorizes emissions trading, but the rules governing emissions trading have been deferred to subsequent conferences. In designing and implementing an international greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading scheme, assigning liability has been considered to be one of the most challenging issues. This article discusses a variety of the rules for accountability under international GHG emissions trading. It indicates that a 'buyer beware' liability is effective only to the extent that it puts additional pressure on sellers to comply with their commitments because after all sellers exercise great, if not complete, control over whether or not they comply with their commitments. Because putting such a pressure on sellers to develop effective compliance systems is not without costs to buyers, a 'buyer beware' liability should thus be imposed only in the case where non-compliance of sellers is virtually certain to occur. Moreover, in determining the optimal combination of these not-mutually-exclusive rules for accountability that are discussed in the article, the marginal benefits of adding one rule needs to be weighted against the increased costs of doing so. 12 refs
[en] The clean development mechanism (CDM) is a global collaborative action proposed at the Kyoto Protocol in response to climate change issues. The CDM contributes to cost-efficient reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in industrialized countries and promotes sustainable development in developing countries. Its fundamental framework is based on partnerships between industrialized and developing countries. This study employs social network analysis to investigate the dynamics of the partnership networks observed in 3816 CDM projects registered in the database of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change over the period of 2005 to 2011. Our three main findings can be summarized as follows. First, the CDM partnership network is a small world; however, its density tends to decrease as the number of participants for a CDM project decreases. Second, the partnership networks’ leading groups tend to shift from partner countries into host countries. Third, a host country that pursues more partnership-based projects takes better control of resources and knowledge-flow in the ego-network formed around that country, and can thus better utilize global resources for its CDM projects. - Highlights: ► We investigate dynamics of the international partnership networks of CDM projects. ► The density of CDM networks tends to decrease by time. ► The partnership networks’ leading groups tend to shift into host countries. ► A host country with more partnerships better utilizes global knowledge resources.
[en] To assist Canada in meeting its commitments under the Kyoto Protocol for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, the Government of Canada established the Climate Change Action Fund (CCAF) in 1998. Under the CCAF umbrella, the Technology Early Action Measures (TEAM) Block was initially allocated 60 million dollars over a three-year period for the provision of cost-shared support to speed up the development and deployment of cost-effective near market-ready greenhouse gases emission reducing technologies. The main avenues adopted by TEAM in its mandate were: supporting technology development and deployment, overcoming obstacles to technology development and deployment, and piloting technology transfer to developing countries and countries in transition. A mid-term evaluation of its performance to date was conducted. It proved to be too early for an adequate assessment of the extent to which the projects sponsored by TEAM demonstrated technical success in reducing greenhouse gases emissions, considering the time-consuming tasks required for the development and negotiation of technology projects. Most projects to date have not moved beyond the early stages benchmark. It was determined that the expected outcomes will be achieved. The innovative approach selected by TEAM, building on existing programs, appeared to be very effective. Findings and recommendations were discussed in this report