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[en] The present paper reviews the international climate change financial framework and aims at providing insights on its future post-2012 development. This study offers an overview of the good attributes and distortions of the current regime, while investigating the work currently done by many countries and international organisation, in proposing unique and original financial schemes for a post-Kyoto agreement. The objective is to define potential strengths and shortcomings of the current (or projected) financial regime, and put this in relation with the creation of an improved new financing scheme, that could transfer sufficient resources from North to South in an efficient, transparent and participatory way. Indeed, international climate change negotiations are now working in this direction, and the regular submissions from Parties and civil society to the UNFCCC's AWG-LCA witness the desire of governments and organisations to achieve an innovative climate change agreement that could overcome existing weaknesses in the global financial structure, while providing nations with suitable tools to handle the adverse consequences of climatic modifications. The paper will additionally focus on the role of CDM and credit-based mechanisms in a new future financial framework, in consideration of needed improvements in the current international credit system and country visions and AWG-LCA submissions.
[en] The Paris Agreement aims to achieve climate neutrality i.e. a balance between the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and GHG sinks by the mid of this century. Since energy consumption is responsihle for roughly three quarters of the global GHG emissions, there has always been a strong focus on the related GHG sources. The focus on the climate debate so far has been on electricity generation, but in the last years, also the future mobility is gaining increasing attention.
[en] The municipal policies regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading from municipalities in developed countries outside of Canada were examined in an effort to help establish a position on municipal carbon trading in Canada. The main uncertainty regarding this new concept of GHG emissions trading is the fate of the Kyoto Protocol, when or if it will be ratified. It is premature for municipalities to have well-established polices about emissions trading because the country in which a municipality is located determines the position towards GHG emissions trading. For this study, an extensive literature search of municipal policies was conducted for both GHG trading and domestic national GHG trading. This was followed by a survey on emissions trading which was distributed to more than 350 member cities (including the United States, Europe and Australia) of the International Council for Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) Campaign. The literature search revealed that municipalities outside of Canada have not yet formulated policies to address the issue of emissions trading. Only 7 per cent of the cities felt that they were informed about emissions trading, even in Europe and Australia where domestic emissions trading is closer to becoming a reality. This paper demonstrated that it is evident that more training is needed for municipalities regarding this issue. For the very few cities that had developed a GHG trading policy, each municipal policy supported municipal participation in emissions trading under conditions that included an environmental retirement, a do-no-harm clause, or an obligation to meet voluntary commitments before excess emissions can be traded. refs., tabs., figs
[en] The growth of both the demography and the economy, is leading to impacts on the environment. In the first place of them, the greenhouse gases increase are responsible of the climatic change. The main part of theses gases are produced by the energy production from fossil fuels. Other are produced by the heavy industry or by the agriculture. This book presents the today effects and solutions to avoid. (A.L.B.)
[en] A variety of public and private insurance tools may be used to transfer risk resulting from extreme weather events associated with climate change. This paper will consider how combinations of risk transfer and collective loss-sharing tools are used both in and through existing international civil liability and compensation regimes, to address transboundary environmental harm from ultra-hazardous, hazardous and dangerous activities. The most prominent of these regimes have developed in connection with risks from nuclear damage, oil spills, transportation of dangerous and hazardous goods, and the pollution of watercourses through industrial accidents. Then, the paper will introduce how insurance tools are used within these existing regimes to transfer and share risk and losses and present the tiered compensation systems currently used in these regimes to redistribute risk. This is done to allow consideration of how similar concepts might be used to address transboundary damage resulting from climate change. Finally, the nuclear third party liability regime in Romania shall be described and the way Societatea Nationala 'Nuclearelectrica' S.A. - the key player and promoter of Romanian nuclear industry development - developed and placed a nuclear insurance program. (author)
[en] A made in Canada approach to climate change is supported by the Canadian Coalition for Responsible Environmental Solutions, which is comprised of several business organizations, industry associations, and consumer advocacy groups. The issue of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, thereby contributing to a cleaner environment and a stronger economy, can be better achieved through the development of a climate change action plan that takes into account the specific circumstances of Canada through innovative solutions and the development of new technology. This document supports building a stronger national consensus on climate change to involve all Canadians. A brief overview of the challenge of the Kyoto Protocol for Canada is provided, followed by a statement of principles for a solution made in Canada. The components of such a plan are examined through the Canadian context, sectoral emission performance agreements, public involvement and education, and international Canadian leadership. A section is devoted to the right measurement for industrial emissions. It is proposed that the time frame be based on a combination of the most effective short-term and medium-term actions with a long-term framework to stimulate the development and deployment of viable technologies that can be commercialized. A coordinated air quality agenda, a national research and innovation strategy, a comprehensive review and streamlining of regulation, sinks and offsets all need to be included. Initiatives concerning the green advantage of Canada, transportation, buildings, community action and science and adaptation are required. 1 fig
[en] The Kyoto protocol has established an accounting system for national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions according to a geographic criterion (producer perspective), such as that proposed by the IPCC guidelines for national GHG inventories. However, the representativeness of this approach is still being debated, because the role of final consumers (consumer perspective) is not considered in the emission allocation system. This paper explores the usefulness of a hybrid analysis, including input–output (IO) and process inventory data, as a complementary tool for estimating and allocating national GHG emissions according to both consumer- and producer-based perspectives. We assess the historical GHG impact profile (from 1995 to 2009) of Luxembourg, which is taken as a case study. The country's net consumption over time is estimated to generate about 28,700 Gg CO_2e/year on average. Compared to the conventional IPCC inventory, the IO-based framework typically shows much higher emission estimations. This relevant discrepancy is mainly due to the different points of view obtained from the hybrid model, in particular with regard to the contribution of imported goods and services. Detailing the GHG inventory by economic activity and considering a wider system boundary make the hybrid IO method advantageous as compared to the IPCC approach, but its effective implementation is still limited by the relatively complex modeling system, as well as the lack of coordination and scarce availability of datasets at the national level. - Highlights: • GHG emissions for Luxembourg are assessed using hybrid input–output (IO) modeling. • Consumer and producer perspectives are compared for the period 1995–2009. • IO-based GHG profiles are remarkably higher than traditional IPCC inventorying. • IO-based GHG accounting presents some advantages but is limited in implementation. • Key-aspects of IPCC and IO-based methods are extensively investigated and compared
[en] The Kyoto Protocol entered into force on February 16, 2005, requiring the Annex B countries to reduce their greenhouse gases emissions by 5,2 % during the period 2008 - 2012, in comparison with their 1990 emissions. The European Directive 2003/87/CE dated from October 13, 2003 creates a CO_2 allowances trading scheme for the periods 2005-2007 and 2008-2012, starting on January 1, 2005 and covering activities listed in Annex I of the Directive. A system for the Measurement, Reporting and Verification of greenhouse gases emissions appears to be the fundamental and indispensable tool for the implementation of these two mechanisms. In order to meet these requirements, Entreprises pour l'Environnement (EpE) drew up in 2001 a greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions Quantification, Reporting and Verification Protocol. This protocol has been updated in 2005 to take into account the lessons learned by its implementation by companies members of EpE, and the evolution of existing documents in this field. The Protocol is characterized as follows: It is fully compatible with the GHG Protocol drawn up under the guidance of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and the World Resources Institute (WRI), and to which EpE and its members contributed. The recommendations for its implementation are based on international financial reporting standards (IFRS). It is also compatible with ISO normative standards related to GHG emissions inventories, with European monitoring and reporting guidelines dated from January 29, 2004, and with guidelines published by the French government. It is more specific and more concise than the GHG Protocol. Companies member of EpE contributed actively to the drafting of this protocol by providing their competences and experience. The purpose of the document is to guide enterprises in the quantification, reporting and verification of greenhouse gases emissions, with a view to develop an inventory of these emissions. It strives to establish the best practices for reporting annual inventories of GHG emissions. The basic principles that must be followed are consistency, completeness, accuracy, transparency and verifiability of data. The document comprises six parts, dealing with the following fields: 1. scope: GHG, direct and indirect emissions, operational control, out-sourcing, 2. annual inventory: types of sources, exclusions, structural changes, consolidation, 3. quantification of GHG emissions: using available sector-specific protocols gathered together as appendices, 4. reporting: transparency and verifiability of data, assertions made by the management, 5. uncertainty calculation, 6. verification. This protocol is fully compatible with national and international existing standards. The 34 companies member of AERES use this document to elaborate their annual GHG emissions inventory. Regarding the calculation of emissions from different types of sources, 16 sector-specific protocols describe the quantification methods and emission factors to be used. They are listed in paragraph 3.9 and Annex 6 of the protocol