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[en] By imagining the change we need to solve issues of sustainability and climate change, we can envision pathways to achieve this future. This panel will build on a common starting point of acceptance of diversity in all things, respect for the land and for all people, and the need to build a technical infrastructure to solve issues of climate change and economic development. National pledges contained in the Paris commitments and National Determined Contributions currently fall short of holding the warming of the Earth below 2 degrees Celsius and ideally at 1.5 degrees Celsius. A rapid phase-out of GHG emissions (both CO2 and non-CO2 drivers) is required, and even then, there is a good chance that the carbon budget will overshoot these targets. Shared socio-economic pathways are narratives of a shared societal future that envisions a sustainable earth in the future. In these climate resilient development pathways net zero emissions is achieved. This panel will expand on what a sustainable future that is climate resilient will look like in 2030 and 2050, and how it can be achieved utilizing a normative exercise of back-casting. We will first envision the clean energy and sustainable, just future, and then describe the pathways for its achievement. Focus will be on a clean energy future including transportation, power generation, environmental considerations,industry, and buildings that will achieve rapid and profound decarbonisation. The technology, infrastructure, social processes, Indigenous perspectives and policies required to achieve this future will be discussed.
[en] A recurring theme throughout this conference Exploring 30 Years of Safety Culture, was the precise denotation of the concept ‘safety culture’. ‘Safety culture’ is composed by two nouns, the subject culture, (arguably, the manifestations of human intellectual achievement regarded collectively), and the qualifier safety (that is the condition of being protected from or not exposed to danger or risk). In the expression safety culture, safety is not used as an adjective proper, but as a modifier of the noun culture, denoting a culture designed to prevent injury or damage. This use, while common in the English language, is imprecise and definitively objectionable in other languages Unsurprisingly, the expression ‘safety culture’ is subject to subtle different interpretations, particularly in languages other than English. The lack of a globally agreeable and precise understanding on what safety culture really means has caused significant bewilderment and has challenged its operationalization. Perhaps due to vagueness on the precise denotation of safety culture, it was argued during the conference that the concept should be considered intangible and therefore unfeasible to regulate as a whole and thus unable to be subjected to legally binding obligations. This was always clear in the nuclear area (e.g. safety culture is not a legally binding obligation under the Nuclear Safety Convention). During the session it became apparent that this also seems to be the case in other applications.
[en] Utilization of nuclear materials and facilities create advantages for human being even though they also inherently bearing risk. In the light of nuclear security there are two risk including theft and sabotage of nuclear materials and facilities. Physical protection system is developed to avoid both of them. One of requirements of physical protection system is graded approach at which its objective is to ensure that protection provided to the nuclear materials is proportional to the level of difficulties overcome by adversary. From the discussion it can be excerpt that attractiveness and total amount of nuclear materials have strong contribution to the graded approach of illegal removal of nuclear material while threshold values of HRC and URC determine graded approach of sabotage. It is then concluded that concept of graded approach can support the effectiveness of physical protection system to reach its objective. (author)
[en] This work aims to point the needs and improvements necessary to implement elements of a performance-based approach to definition, design and evaluation of physical protection systems in order to build such systems appropriately to the reality of Brazilian nuclear facilities, while maintaining compliance to national regulations (e.g. CNEN NE 2:01) and documents and other instruments adopted internationally (e.g. IAEA CPPNM and INFCIRC 225 Rev.5). This methodology might represent an improvement compared to a purely prescriptive approach, in which the regulatory authority defines the measures to be taken by operators of nuclear facilities to prevent theft, sabotage events, and mitigate their consequences. The prescriptive approach, despite having the advantages of clarity in the definition of requirements, simplicity in regulatory terms (inspections to verify compliance), and homogeneity in relation to various facilities, does not allow a clear and effective performance measurement, may provide insufficient or excessive security measures (with excessive expenditure of material and human resources), and the possibility of providing a false sense of security. It is known that, in many countries, the state-sponsored nuclear security regime mixes elements of the two mentioned approaches, prescriptive and based on performance, which is not Brazilian practice nowadays. Such methodological developments happened globally due to the increase of threat level for nuclear facilities and materials. This work uses the technique DEPO (Design and Evaluation Process Outline), developed at Sandia National Laboratories, from United States Department of Energy, which has been taught and quoted in various courses organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This technique is based on three fundamental pillars: • Definition of requirements: Facility characterization, definition of potential targets for theft and sabotage, evaluation of internal and external threats to the facility; • Design of Physical Protection System: Analysis of detection, delay and response characteristics; • Physical Protection System Evaluation: Multipath analysis, neutralization analysis, scenario analysis. Regarding the Brazilian reality, the current scenario is of restriction of human and material resources, political and economic turbulence and, in terms of nuclear security regulation, the use of prescriptive approach (regulatory instruments are being updated to better reflect what has been practiced internationally). This scenario can facilitate or enable new threats to the Brazilian Nuclear Program. Major public events have recently been carried out in the country, increasing the country’s visibility on the international stage, and that fact might lead to a possible increase in the attractiveness of existing assets to possible opponents, both internal (e.g. disgruntled employees, political motivations) and external (e.g. terrorism, organizations that militate against nuclear development in Brazil). In addition, despite the efforts being carried out in order to build a national DBT, the operators still rely on their own threat assessments as a starting point for building their physical protection systems. The work will also make possible the development of teaching materials in Portuguese and in accessible terms, to raise awareness about the importance of Nuclear Security issue for plant operators of nuclear materials and decision makers on the subject. (author)
[en] How much power does the Paris Climate Agreement and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) formulated in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development have as an international frame of reference for global energy transformation? In the present study, Lukas Hermwille analyzes the two agendas and highlights their complementarities. The study concludes that focusing solely on innovative approaches and the expansion of renewable energies is not enough. If one take the ambition of the two-degree limit or even the 1.5-degree target seriously, it is not enough to wait until coal, oil and gas will be obsolete by itself, but it will be necessary to exit to actively shape politics from fossil fuels. In this sense, the study also recommends using ''innovation strategies'' to look at the potential losers in the energy transformation in order to reduce resistance in order to achieve a timely and socially equitable exit from the use of fossil fuels.
[de]Wie viel Gestaltungsmacht haben das Pariser Klimaabkommen und die in der Agenda 2030 fuer nachhaltige Entwicklung formulierten Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) als internationaler Bezugsrahmen fuer die globale Energietransformation? In der vorliegenden Studie analysiert Lukas Hermwille die beiden Agenden und stellt deren Komplementaritaeten heraus. Die Studie kommt zu dem Ergebnis, dass ein Fokus allein auf innovative Ansaetze und den Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien nicht ausreicht. Nimmt man die Ambition des Zwei-Grad-Limits oder gar des 1,5-Grad-Ziels ernst, reicht es nicht aus, darauf zu warten, bis Kohle, Oel und Gas von alleine obsolet werden, sondern es wird noetig werden, den Ausstieg aus fossilen Energietraegern aktiv politisch zu gestalten. In diesem Sinne empfiehlt die Studie mit Hilfe von ''Exnovationsstrategien'' auch die potenziellen Verlierer der Energietransformation in den Blick zu nehmen, so Widerstaende abzubauen, um den Ausstieg aus der Nutzung fossiler Energietraeger rechtzeitig und gleichzeitig sozial gerecht zu erreichen.
[en] This PhD dissertation sets out to analyze, in a socio-epistemic way, the various controversies relating to global warming. This work is based on two objectives: (1) to develop and test a reflective analysis tool developed as an ongoing investigation in a single analytical framework articulating existing and occasionally controversial frameworks. (2) To analyze actors' strategies and arguments in the different areas of mediation concerning controversial climate system of knowledge, regarding the understanding to disentangle epistemological and axiological dimensions. This thesis is based on a bibliometric work to build a socio-historical reconstruction of the main controversial elements from the eighteenth century to the present time. Following this epistemological basis the analysis progresses in three steps. The first is an analysis based on a researcher's corpus (climatologists or otherwise) in various situation of communication, secondly completed by inquiry detailed survey with individual and collective interviews and finally a socio-linguistic analysis. Only then does it become possible to provide a radiography of global warming controversies restoring the part we can see, the In and the Off, to unravel the ontological, epistemological and axiological dimensions. (author)
[fr]Cette recherche ambitionne d'analyser d'un point de vue socioepistemique les controverses climatiques. Elle s'est structuree autour de deux objectifs principaux: (1) Elaborer et tester un outil d'analyse resolument reflexif construit au fur et a mesure de l'enquete articulant des cadres preexistants et parfois controverses. (2) Analyser les jeux d'acteurs et d'arguments dans les differents espaces de mediation des savoirs controverses concernant la comprehension du systeme climatique afin de demeler leurs dimensions epistemologique et axiologique. Pour cela cette recherche propose a partir d'un travail bibliometrique, une reconstruction sociohistorique des principaux elements controverses depuis le XVIIIe siecle jusqu'a nos jours. De plus elle articule: une analyse des discours de chercheurs climatologues ou non suivant differentes situations de communications, une enquete fondee sur des entretiens individuels et collectif et une analyse sociologique pragmatico-linguistique. Cette radiographie des controverses climatiques permet de decrire 'le mille-feuille discursif', restituant le In (la partie visible depuis l'espace public) et le Off (la partie relevant de l'activite de la recherche), en demelant les dimensions ontologique, epistemologique et axiologique. (auteur)
[en] Highlights: • The Kyoto Protocol created the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to reduce carbon emissions around the world. • This paper examines the effect of the CDM on deploying renewable energy with a panel dataset of 64 CDM host countries. • We show that the CDM is a particularly valuable tool for deploying renewable energy in countries with poor financial markets. • Our results stress the role of CDM in countries where access to financing is strictly limited for renewable energy projects. - Abstract: Using a panel dataset of 64 Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) host countries for the 2001–2014 period, we examine the effect of the CDM on deploying renewable energy at varying levels of domestic financial development. We find that the positive effect of the CDM on the deployment of renewable energy is pronounced in countries with less developed domestic financial markets. Given that renewable sectors in less developed financial markets experience shortages of debt and equity financing, the CDM plays an active role in improving access to financing for these sectors. Our results suggest that investing in CDM projects to deploy renewable energy is particularly valuable for developing countries with less developed financial markets.
[en] The Argentine Republic signed the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) in 1986 and ratified its Amendment in 2011 (prior to its entry into force on May 8, 2016). As the CPPNM is the only legally binding international instrument in the area of physical protection, it is a key element of the international legal framework for nuclear security. During the last few years, nuclear security has become a very important concern at the international level and Argentina has demonstrated a strong commitment with this matter. Argentina has always highlighted the importance of IAEA’s role in order to strengthen global nuclear security and has supported the efforts made by the Agency in it. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina was created by the Nuclear Activity National Act as an autonomous body reporting to the country’s Presidency, and is independent of any organization dedicated to the use or the promotion of nuclear energy in any of its forms. ARN has the final objective of protecting the people and the environment from the potential harm of ionizing radiations. With this goal it has federal competence to regulate the nuclear activity on specific areas: radiological safety, nuclear safety, safeguards and physical protection. As a regulator, ARN dictates regulatory standards, issues the permissions and licenses authorizing practices and installations, controls the compliance with standards, requirements and license conditions, enforces this compliance and has a leading role in the preparation and response to radiological and nuclear emergencies. In summary, regarding physical protection, ARN is the competent authority responsible for the implementation of the regulatory functions on the physical protection of nuclear material and facilities and radioactive sources, and therefore has a key role in complying with the CPPNM and its Amendment. Specifically, ARN issued the “Standard of Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Facilities” establishing general criteria of physical protection of nuclear materials within nuclear facilities and during transport. It identifies levels of protection, the general features that a physical protection system should include and main aspects of its assessment. This standard, AR 10.13.1, had a first revision in 2002 and is under a broader process of general revision nowadays. The paper will analyze the current status of the Argentine physical protection standards (in terms of normative, requirements and license conditions) and the challenges that the Amendment poses to our national legislation since new offences were incorporated to Article 7 of the Convention. It will also elaborate on the specific role of ARN in the implementation of CPPNM and its Amendment. (authors)
[en] This report presents the research work which has been carried out for the last 24 months and its outcomes. It highlights both the originalities and the sophistication of the compliance and enforcement mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol. Using lessons learned in other legal fields and keeping in mind the coming first months of operation, the research also underlines the limits of such mechanisms. It lays stress on the extent of uncertainties which remain and could endanger or hinder the implementation of the Protocol.
[en] Highlights: • We assessed stakeholders’ data needs for estimating GHG emissions in the AFOLU sector. • Stakeholder satisfaction with current open and freely available datasets is moderate. • Independent data, methods and tools could serve diverse needs of various stakeholders. • Open and free data increase transparency and create more legitimacy with stakeholders. • Independent data can complement mandated national GHG monitoring and reporting. - Abstract: The agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) sectors contribute substantially to the net global anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To reduce these emissions under the Paris Agreement, effective mitigation actions are needed that require engagement of multiple stakeholders. Emission reduction also requires that accurate, consistent and comparable datasets are available for transparent reference and progress monitoring. Availability of free and open datasets and portals (referred to as independent data) increases, offering opportunities for improving and reconciling estimates of GHG emissions and mitigation options. Through an online survey, we investigated stakeholders’ data needs for estimating forest area and change, forest biomass and emission factors, and AFOLU GHG emissions. The survey was completed by 359 respondents from governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, research institutes and universities, and public and private companies. These can be grouped into data users and data providers. Our results show that current open and freely available datasets and portals are only able to fulfil stakeholder needs to a certain degree. Users require a) detailed documentation regarding the scope and usability of the data, b) comparability between alternative data sources, c) uncertainty estimates for evaluating mitigation options, d) more region-specific and detailed data with higher accuracy for sub-national application, e) regular updates and continuity for establishing consistent time series. These requirements are found to be key elements for increasing overall transparency of data sources, definitions, methodologies and assumptions, which is required under the Paris Agreement. Raising awareness and improving data availability through centralized platforms are important for increasing engagement of data users. In countries with low capacities, independent data can support countries’ mitigation planning and implementation, and related GHG reporting. However, there is a strong need for further guidance and capacity development (i.e. ‘readiness support’) on how to make proper use of independent datasets. Continued investments will be needed to sustain programmes and keep improving datasets to serve the objectives of the many stakeholders involved in climate change mitigation and should focus on increased accessibility and transparency of data to encourage stakeholder involvement.