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[en] The Paris Agreement aims to achieve climate neutrality i.e. a balance between the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and GHG sinks by the mid of this century. Since energy consumption is responsihle for roughly three quarters of the global GHG emissions, there has always been a strong focus on the related GHG sources. The focus on the climate debate so far has been on electricity generation, but in the last years, also the future mobility is gaining increasing attention.
[en] According to its article 2, the Paris Agreement PA aims at, inter alia, "Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels ... ". Paragraph 21 of the Decision, the document that explains the general thinking of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UNFCCC as they adopted the PA in 2015, "Invites the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC] to provide a special report in 2018 on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways."
[en] • It is important to identify, understand and make use of all entry points and cooperation mechanisms for supporting those Parties willing to consider or strengthen nuclear power to address climate change. • IAEA and other organizations working on nuclear power should actively seek to contribute to the relevant processes under the Paris Agreement, including the global stockade. • The findings of this conference should be considered together with the findings of previous conferences on nuclear science and applications (e.g., contributions to adaptation and transformation in general).
[en] Leading global energy scenarios highlight the need for nuclear power to play a larger role in climate change mitigation to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement. Together with other low carbon technologies, nuclear energy can supply increasing demands for electricity and non-electric energy up to 2050 as part of a sustainable energy transition. Scenario studies from a range of organizations imply that a policy and market environment that unlocks the mitigation potential of nuclear power will enable countries to adopt more ambitious targets in their Nationally Determined Contributions under the Paris Agreement. (author)
[en] Nuclear energy has always been subject to debate. Mainly, its opponents point out the high risk implied by the use of nuclear energy. This risk is not comparable to any usual industrial risk considering its characteristics and its significant consequences for human being and environment. The principal stake concerns the nuclear operator's civil liability provided by international conventions of Paris, Brussels and Vienna which created a specific liability regime, complemented by the national legislations during their transposition. It is important to focus on the application of this specific liability regime for final shutdown and dismantling of nuclear power plants. The paper analyzes the efficiency of such specific liability in order to assess whether it is appropriated, especially to the nuclear risk led by the dismantling of nuclear power plants and the costs involved by a nuclear accident during these operations. (author)
[fr]L'energie nucleaire a toujours fait debat. Les opposants lui reprochent principalement le risque nucleaire. Celui-ci ne peut etre compare a un risque industriel classique du fait de ses caracteristiques et de l'importance et de la nature des dommages catastrophiques pour l'homme et l'environnement. Le principal enjeu porte sur la responsabilite civile de l'exploitant et a entraine la mise en place d'un dispositif derogatoire au droit commun, prevu par les conventions internationales de Paris, Bruxelles et Vienne, et complete par les legislations nationales qui les transposent. Il est important de bien cerner l'application de ce dispositif dans le contexte des operations de demantelement en France et de determiner s'il repond in fine a la problematique suivante: est-il adapte au risque inherent aux operations de demantelement et permettrait-il une prise en charge efficace du cout des reparations d'un dommage issu d'un accident survenant lors du demantelement d'une installation nucleaire? (auteur)
[en] The political debate on raising EU’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction target for 2030 from at least 40 percent up to 55 percent or even higher is in full swing. While the European Commission has proposed to reduce emissions by at least 55 percent below 1990 levels, the European Parliament went a step further and adopted a target of 60 percent emissions reductions. This paper intends to enrich ongoing debates on the “how” the EU could commit to a 2030 mitigation objective, with the highest ambition possible as committed to the Paris Agreement.
[en] Key Messages: • Many countries face challenges in accelerating the low carbon energy transition in the context of SDGs and the Paris Agreement, including complex issues related to technology transfer, financial mechanisms, capacity building and infrastructure establishment; • While in many countries deployment of low carbon technology is conducted through commercial private sector arrangements, there is nonetheless a crucial role for international cooperation and partnerships at various level with different approaches to ensure long term sustainable outcomes; • The IAEA continues to cooperate with a wide and expanding range of partners to contribute to this effort in an efficient and effective manner.
[en] This table aims to gather information on the amounts available to compensate potential victims of a nuclear incident in countries and economies having nuclear power plants and/or having ratified at least one of the international conventions on nuclear third party liability. In the table: Public funds correspond to the amounts provided from public funds beyond the Operator's Liability Amount to be made available by the States parties to the BSC or CSC according to such conventions, or by any public authority pursuant to applicable laws and regulations. International funds correspond to public funds contributed jointly by all the States parties to the BSC or CSC according to a pre-determined formula provided in the respective conventions. The amounts provided in the table corresponds to the total amount of the international funds calculated. For the CSC international fund, the amount has been calculated by the IAEA on-line calculator available at https://ola.iaea.org/ola/CSCND/index.html on the day the table was updated. SDR is a unit of account used by the International Monetary Fund and is based upon a basket of weighted currencies. The latest exchange rates of SDRs per currency units are available at www.imf.org/external/np/fin/data/rms_five.aspx. Interest and legal costs are not specified in the table.
[en] As a State Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Germany has been required to prepare, publish and regularly update inventories on national greenhouse gas emissions since 1994. According to Decision 24/CP.19, all countries listed in ANNEX I of the Framework Convention on Climate Change must annually prepare and submit a National Inventory Report (NIR), which provides detailed and complete information on the entire process of preparing greenhouse gas inventories. This report is intended to ensure transparency, consistency, and comparability of the inventories and to support the independent review process.
[de]Als Vertragsstaat der Klimarahmenkonvention der Vereinten Nationen (UNFCCC) ist Deutschland seit 1994 dazu verpflichtet, Inventare zu nationalen Treibhausgasemissionen zu erstellen, zu veröffentlichen und regelmäßig fortzuschreiben. Gemäß Entscheidung 24/CP.19 müssen alle im ANNEX I der Klimarahmenkonvention aufgeführten Staaten jährlich einen Nationalen Inventarbericht (NIR) erstellen und übermitteln, der detaillierte und vollständige Angaben über den gesamten Prozess der Erstellung der Treibhausgasinventare bereitstellt. Durch diesen Bericht soll die Transparenz, Konsistenz und Vergleichbarkeit der Inventare sichergestellt und der unabhängige Überprüfungsprozess unterstützt werden.
Climate/CCNUCC - Assessment of the COP-22 and stakes for the COP-23: which advances towards the realisation of the Paris Agreement? COP-22: 7-19 November 2016, Marrakech, Morocco. COP-23: 6-18 November 2017, under the presidency of Fiji Islands. Special file of the CITEPA, 16 October 2017. The Synthesis Sheets of the Citepa - Air pollution and greenhouse effect
[en] This publication first indicates the organisation and process of the Marrakech Conference, its objectives and stakes, and proposes an overview of its results. Then, it proposes a detailed overview of results obtained within the CCNUCC regarding several issues: meeting of parties at the Paris Agreement, decision on capacity strengthening, long term funding of the climate action, information on the provided funding, dates and locations of the future COP sessions, national strategies for low-carbon development by 2050, transparency, higher level of ambition. The third part presents results obtained outside of negotiations: Climate Vulnerable Forum, High Ambition Coalition, Ndc partnership, platform of 2050 trajectories, Marrakech partnership for a world climate action, next Cops.