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[en] The closure of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant will have an essential impact on the structure of heat generation in Lithuanian power and district heating sectors. In a normal case, the basic generator will become the Lithuanian Thermal Power Plant (TPP), which is a comparatively old and inefficient generator. It serves now as a reserve capacity for the Ignalina NPP in the Lithuanian power system. The basic fuel of the Lithuanian TPP is heavy fuel oil imported from Russia and containing high levels of sulphur. Emission of SO2 will increase significantly in this case, and the aspiration of Lithuanian Government to satisfy the requirements of Kyoto and Goeteborg protocols could be very problematic. Increasing the share of CHP in the generation structure could be a good alternative seeking to solve the environmental problems and to implement the requirements of international agreements. (author)
[en] United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol have initiated an awareness of the necessity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and have provided guidelines of the energy in the world, especially within the European Union. EU sets its action within the negotiations on a new global agreement in the field of climate change, for the period after the 2020. Croatia, also, has to follow these guidelines. Therefore, Croatia conducts activities to develop low-carbon development strategy and to establish the legal and institutional framework for the successful implementation of measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.(author)
[en] The Kyoto Protocol entered into force on February 16, 2005, requiring the Annex B countries to reduce their greenhouse gases emissions by 5,2 % during the period 2008 - 2012, in comparison with their 1990 emissions. The European Directive 2003/87/CE dated from October 13, 2003 creates a CO_2 allowances trading scheme for the periods 2005-2007 and 2008-2012, starting on January 1, 2005 and covering activities listed in Annex I of the Directive. A system for the Measurement, Reporting and Verification of greenhouse gases emissions appears to be the fundamental and indispensable tool for the implementation of these two mechanisms. In order to meet these requirements, Entreprises pour l'Environnement (EpE) drew up in 2001 a greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions Quantification, Reporting and Verification Protocol. This protocol has been updated in 2005 to take into account the lessons learned by its implementation by companies members of EpE, and the evolution of existing documents in this field. The Protocol is characterized as follows: It is fully compatible with the GHG Protocol drawn up under the guidance of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and the World Resources Institute (WRI), and to which EpE and its members contributed. The recommendations for its implementation are based on international financial reporting standards (IFRS). It is also compatible with ISO normative standards related to GHG emissions inventories, with European monitoring and reporting guidelines dated from January 29, 2004, and with guidelines published by the French government. It is more specific and more concise than the GHG Protocol. Companies member of EpE contributed actively to the drafting of this protocol by providing their competences and experience. The purpose of the document is to guide enterprises in the quantification, reporting and verification of greenhouse gases emissions, with a view to develop an inventory of these emissions. It strives to establish the best practices for reporting annual inventories of GHG emissions. The basic principles that must be followed are consistency, completeness, accuracy, transparency and verifiability of data. The document comprises six parts, dealing with the following fields: 1. scope: GHG, direct and indirect emissions, operational control, out-sourcing, 2. annual inventory: types of sources, exclusions, structural changes, consolidation, 3. quantification of GHG emissions: using available sector-specific protocols gathered together as appendices, 4. reporting: transparency and verifiability of data, assertions made by the management, 5. uncertainty calculation, 6. verification. This protocol is fully compatible with national and international existing standards. The 34 companies member of AERES use this document to elaborate their annual GHG emissions inventory. Regarding the calculation of emissions from different types of sources, 16 sector-specific protocols describe the quantification methods and emission factors to be used. They are listed in paragraph 3.9 and Annex 6 of the protocol
[en] On 8 May 2016, the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) finally entered into force, almost eleven years after its adoption. The world will be a more secure place as a result of the commitments that States party to the Amendment have made. The Amendment establishes legally binding commitments for countries to protect nuclear facilities as well as nuclear material in domestic use, storage and transport. Under the Amendment, countries are required to establish appropriate physical protection regimes for nuclear material. They also take on new obligations to share information on sabotage, including on credible threats of sabotage. The entry into force of the Amendment demonstrates the international community’s resolve to act together to strengthen nuclear security globally. It also helps reduce the risk of an attack involving nuclear material, which could have catastrophic consequences.
[en] According to its article 2, the Paris Agreement PA aims at, inter alia, "Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels ... ". Paragraph 21 of the Decision, the document that explains the general thinking of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UNFCCC as they adopted the PA in 2015, "Invites the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC] to provide a special report in 2018 on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways."
[en] Third party liability insurance for nuclear damage likely to be caused during international transport of nuclear substances should be approved, in accordance with the 1960 Paris Convention, by the countries over whose territories these substances are carried even when the insurer is in a foreign country. However this policy is not yet applied in all the member countries of the Convention. A solution might be to follow the international motor insurance scheme, commonly called the green card system, which guarantees the insurance taken out by the driver. In addition, the financial security certificate provided by the Paris Convention should be changed to adapt with international transport conditions. (N.E.A.)
[fr]L'assurance responsabilite civile des dommages nucleaires susceptibles d'etre causes en cours de transport international de substances nucleaires devrait, conformement a la Convention de Paris de 1960, pouvoir etre agreee par les pays sur le territoire desquels ces substances sont transportees, meme si l'assureur est installe dans un pays etranger. Ce n'est cependant pas encore la politique de tous les pays membres de la Convention. Une solution possible serait peut-etre de s'inspirer du regime institue en matiere d'assurance automobile internationale, plus connu sous le nom de carte verte, qui met en jeu un systeme de garantie de l'assurance souscrite par le conducteur. Il conviendrait egalement d'adapter aux conditions du transport international le contenu du certificat de garantie financiere prevu par la Convention de Paris
[en] Now that the worldwide evaluation of the nuclear fuel cycle decided upon in October 1977 for further international support of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy which, at the same time, is to minimize the proliferation risk of nuclear weapons, is fifty percent complete, an analysis of the work performed so far in INFCE (International Fuel Cycle Evaluation) and of its trends and perspectives may be attempted. It turns out that all of the sixty countries now participating seem to be interested in obtaining results; however, these findings will not be binding under international law. No country has so far questioned the importance of nuclear energy as a source of opwer. The strong initial interest in 'exotic' fuel cycles has given way to a more sober assessment. All industrialized countries, the United States included, want to keep open the option for the fast breeder reactor. The developing countries have not sought confrontation with the industrialized countries, but constructively participate in the quest for problem solutions. (orig.)
[de]Die im Oktober 1977 beschlossene weltweite Bewertung des nuklearen Brennstoffkreislaufs hinsichtlich der weiteren internationalen Foerderung der friedlichen Nutzung der Kernenergie bei gleichzeitiger Minimierung der Gefahr der Verbreitung von Kernwaffen, INFCE, soll im Februar 1980 abgeschlossen werden. Sie hat mit Plenarkonferen vom November 1978 die Halbzeit erreicht, die eine erste Bilanz der bisherigen Arbeit sowie der Tendenzen und Perspektiven ermoeglicht. Wie auch immer die voelkerrechtlich nicht bindenden Ergebnisse ausfallen werden, die bisherige konstruktive Mitarbeit der inzwischen 60 teilnehmenden Staten, hat gewisse Hoffnungen geweckt, dass kuenftig sachliche Problemloesungen immer mehr an die Stelle politischer Konfrontationen treten werden. (orig.)
[en] The responsibility for nuclear security rests entirely with each State. There is no single international instrument that addresses nuclear security in a comprehensive manner. The legal foundation for nuclear security comprises international instruments and recognized principles that are implemented by national authorities. Security systems at the national level will contribute to a strengthened and more universal system of nuclear security at the international level. The binding security treaties are; Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, the 2005 amendment thereto, Safeguards Agreements between the Agency and states required in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Model Protocol additional to agreement(s) between State(s) and the Agency for the application of Safeguards Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, Convention on Nuclear Safety, Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management
[en] The responsibility for nuclear security rests entirely with each individual state. However,states need to work together to enhance collective nuclear security. There are international legal instruments that provide a strategic framework and a common platform for such cooperation. Among such legally binding security related instruments are: Convention on the physical protection of Nuclear materials, Convention on the early notification of nuclear accident and the International convention for the Suppression of acts of Nuclear Terrorism.