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[en] The awareness and preservation of the vernacular heritage and traditional construction techniques and materials is crucial as a key element of cultural identity. However, vernacular architecture located in earthquake prone areas can show a particularly poor seismic performance because of inadequate construction practices resulting from economic restraints and lack of resources. The horizontal diaphragms are one of the key aspects influencing the seismic behavior of buildings because of their major role transmitting the seismic actions to the vertical resisting elements of the structure. This paper presents a numerical parametric study adopted to understand the seismic behavior and resisting mechanisms of vernacular buildings according to the type of horizontal diaphragm considered. Detailed finite element modeling and nonlinear static (pushover) analyses were used to perform the thorough parametric study aimed at the evaluation and quantification of the influence of the type of diaphragm in the seismic behavior of vernacular buildings. The reference models used for this study simulate representative rammed earth and stone masonry vernacular buildings commonly found in the South of Portugal. Therefore, this paper also contributes for a better insight of the structural behavior of vernacular earthen and stone masonry typologies under seismic loading.
[en] After opening speeches, a first set of contributions, herein presented under the form of Power Point presentations, addresses the new deal for solar heat, and more particularly the new French and European regulatory frameworks, and technical and economic innovations in collective and individual housing (energy saving certificates, interest-free loans, innovating techniques of integration of solar heat into buildings, production simulations and returns on experience). The second session reports innovating actions undertaken by local actors in French regions for local production and for the struggle against climate change, outlines the development of good practices in the solar heat sector (in terms of installation follow-up, of guaranteed quality, of exploitation, and of commitment for quality and performance) with also a presentation of the SHIP2FAIR European project for a high-performance industrial solar heat. It finally proposes a discussion on the role of thermal solar energy in a sustainable building.
[en] Highlights: • A novel organic-inorganic hybrid solar energy storage cell was developed. • AQDS' positive equilibrium potential and fast kinetics facilitate photoelectrons injection. • The photoelectrochemical performance is pH dependent. • Improved unassisted photocharging was demonstrated. - Abstract: Greater levels of solar energy storage provide a promising path for sustainable and reliable utilization of the renewable energy source. One of the greatest challenges towards large-scale implementation of this technology is improving storage capacity and efficiency. The conventional solar-storage architecture, where rechargeable batteries and solar cells are externally coupled, typically results in addition of unnecessary efficiency and reliability margins in design, redundancy of resources (i.e. higher cost), and missed opportunities to increase performance through synergistic integration. Here we overcome these challenges by developing an organic-inorganic hybrid photoelectrochemical storage cell (PESC) to capture and store energy at the point of solar energy generation. The PESC was built by integrating a TiO2 photoelectrode and a Quinone-Vanadium redox flow battery (RFB), which gives rise to superior photoelectrochemical reversibility and stability of the PESC. We demonstrated that photoelectron injection from the TiO2 photoelectrode to the catholyte during unbiased photocharging was significantly enhanced by adjusting pH of the supporting electrolyte. The important charge separation at the semiconductor electrolyte interfaces was also analyzed through electrochemical and photoelectrochemical studies.