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[en] Acid mine drainage often results from the oxidation sulfide minerals to form sulfuric acid. As a consequence, high concentrations of metals in the both the suspended and dissolved state result from the low pH water. This paper discusses several of the more common treatment methods for acid mine drainage including the use of chemical precipitation agents, pH correction agents, filtration methods, and biodegradation methods. Advanced treatment technologies are also briefly described and include microfiltration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodialysis
[en] The purpose of this work was to augment the alkaline protease production from Bacillus subtilis by using chemical mutagen (MMS) and UV mutagenesis. A number of mutants were isolated which produce high levels of extra cellular proteases. Analysis of culture supernatants of these mutants had shown that the total amounts of proteolysis activity were increased from 1 to 2 fold over the wild strain. Clones showing promote response were further characterized by analyzing different parameters; like of Temperature, pH substrate concentration and incubation period, to study the activity of protease enzyme. (author)
[en] Simple mass balance equations (SMBE) of critical acid loads (CAL) in forest soil were developed to assess potential risks of air pollutants to ecosystems. However, to apply SMBE reliably at large scales, SMBE must be tested for adequacy and uncertainty. Our goal was to provide a detailed analysis of uncertainty in SMBE so that sound strategies for scaling up CAL estimates to the national scale could be developed. Specifically, we wanted to quantify CAL uncertainty under natural variability in 17 model parameters, and determine their relative contributions in predicting CAL. Results indicated that uncertainty in CAL came primarily from components of base cation weathering (BCw; 49%) and acid neutralizing capacity (46%), whereas the most critical parameters were BCw base rate (62%), soil depth (20%), and soil temperature (11%). Thus, improvements in estimates of these factors are crucial to reducing uncertainty and successfully scaling up SMBE for national assessments of CAL. - A comprehensive uncertainty analysis, with advanced techniques and full list and full value ranges of all individual parameters, was used to examine a simple mass balance model and address questions of error partition and uncertainty reduction in critical acid load estimates that were not fully answered by previous studies
[en] Lake Qinghai in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau is the largest lake in China. This study firstly reported the geochemistry of Cd in the lake. Water samples were collected from Lake Qinghai (n = 69) and Buha River (n = 12), while sediment (n = 22) and topsoil (n = 45) samples were collected from the lake and around the lake area, respectively. In addition, pore water samples (n = 20) were separated from sediment samples. Water samples were analyzed for pH, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl, S, and Cd, while sediment and topsoil samples were analyzed for K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, S, Sc, and Cd. The average concentration of Cd was 0.014 μg L−1 in the water of Lake Qinghai and 0.007 μg L−1 in the water of Buha River. However, the average concentration of Cd was 0.320 μg L−1 in the sediment pore water, much higher than that in the lake water and river water. Cadmium concentration in the lake water might be mainly controlled by salinity, while it in the pore water might be mainly controlled by carbonate minerals. Cadmium concentration in the river water might be controlled by alkalinity and pH. The average concentration of Cd in the sediment was 0.284 mg kg−1. The enrichment of Cd in the lake sediment was significantly higher than that in the topsoil around the lake. Anthropogenic atmospheric deposition of Cd did not led to the increase in dissolved Cd level in the lake water, but led to its enrichment in the lake sediment.
[en] External matching networks are crucial and necessary for operating capacitively coupled plasmas in order to maximize the absorbed power. Experiments show that external circuits in general heavily interact with the plasma in a nonlinear way. This interaction has to be taken into account in order to be able to design suitable networks, e.g., for plasma processing systems. For a complete understanding of the underlying physics of this coupling, a nonlinear simulation approach which considers both the plasma and the circuit dynamics can provide useful insights. In this work, the coupling of an equivalent circuit plasma model and an external electric circuit composed of lumped elements is discussed. The plasma model itself is self-consistent in the sense that the plasma density and the electron temperature is calculated from the absorbed power based on a global plasma chemistry model. The approach encompasses all elements present in plasma systems, i.e., the discharge itself, the matching network, the power generator as well as stray loss elements. While the main result of this work is the conceptual approach itself, at the example of a single-frequency capacitively coupled discharge its applicability is demonstrated. It is shown that it provides an effective and efficient way to analyze and understand the nonlinear dynamics of plasma systems including the external circuit and, furthermore, may be applied to synthesize optimal matching networks. (paper)
[en] Enhanced reductive dehalogenation is an attractive treatment technology for in situ remediation of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas. Reductive dehalogenation is an acid-forming process with hydrochloric acid and also organic acids from fermentation of the electron donors typically building up in the source zone during remediation. This can lead to groundwater acidification thereby inhibiting the activity of dehalogenating microorganisms. Where the soils' natural buffering capacity is likely to be exceeded, the addition of an external source of alkalinity is needed to ensure sustained dehalogenation. To assist in the design of bioremediation systems, an abiotic geochemical model was developed to provide insight into the processes influencing the groundwater acidity as dehalogenation proceeds, and to predict the amount of bicarbonate required to maintain the pH at a suitable level for dehalogenating bacteria (i.e., > 6.5). The model accounts for the amount of chlorinated solvent degraded, site water chemistry, electron donor, alternative terminal electron-accepting processes, gas release and soil mineralogy. While calcite and iron oxides were shown to be the key minerals influencing the soil's buffering capacity, for the extensive dehalogenation likely to occur in a DNAPL source zone, significant bicarbonate addition may be necessary even in soils that are naturally well buffered. Results indicated that the bicarbonate requirement strongly depends on the electron donor used and availability of competing electron acceptors (e.g., sulfate, iron (III)). Based on understanding gained from this model, a simplified model was developed for calculating a preliminary design estimate of the bicarbonate addition required to control the pH for user-specified operating conditions.
[en] A short-term study was done to analyze the state of acidification of surface water at Semenyih Dam. This study is part of a continuous monitoring programme for Malaysia as a participatory country of EANET (Acid Monitoring Network in East Asia). Surface water samples were taken at selected points of the dam from February to December 2005. Temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, alkalinity, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) as well as concentration of specific ionic species were measured, determined and analysed in this study. Present available sort-term study data indicates Semenyih Dam surface water is currently not undergoing acidification. (author)
[en] Acid atmospheric emissions within Europe and North America have decreased strongly since 1985 and most recent acidification studies have focused on the changes occurring within ecosystems as a result of this decreased deposition. This current study documents a soil acidification trend under ambient N deposition conditions over a 13 year period, suggesting that acidification continues to be a process of concern at this Calluna vulgaris dominated heathland with an acidic sandy soil. The annual manipulation of climatic conditions on this heathland simulated the predicted summer rainfall reduction (drought) and resulted in a long term retardation of the soil acidification trend. The pH of the soil solution significantly decreased over the course of the trial for both treatments, however, in the final 2 years the decline continued only in the Control treatment. This retardation is primarily associated with the reduction in rainfall leading to lower drainage rates, reduced loss of cations and therefore reduced lowering of the soil acid neutralizing capacity (ANC). However, a change in the underlying mechanisms also indicated that N transformations became less important in the Drought treatment. This change corresponded to an increase in groundcover of an air-pollution tolerant moss species and it is hypothesized that this increasing moss cover filtered an increasing quantity of deposited N, thus reducing the N available for transformation. A soil acidification lag time is expected to increase between the two treatments due to the cumulative disparity in cation retention and rates of proton formation. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study in which such acidification trends have been demonstrated in a field-scale climate manipulation experiment. -- Highlights: ► A unique investigation of acidification on a field-scale climate manipulation trial. ► Soil acidification occurred over 13 years of ambient N deposition conditions. ► Repeated annual drought retards acidification by lower cation loss. ► Increasing cover of pollution tolerant mosses may reduce N input and proton formation. ► Soil acidification is still a concern on this N-saturated system.
[en] The influence of various culture conditions on protease production by Bacillus subtilis ML-4 was studied in the presence of growth medium containing poultry feed waste (5%), K/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/ (0.3%), CaCl/sub 2/ (0.03%) and MgSO/sub 4/ (0.015%). Maximum protease production (264.25 +- 1.86 U/ml) was observed at initial pH 9 with 3% (v/v) of inoculum size after 48 h of incubation at 37 degree C. The alkaline protease was stable over a broad range of temperature (30 to 60 degree C) and pH (8 to 11). However, maximum activity (155.45 U/ml) was observed at temperature 50 degree C and pH 10. (author)