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[en] Coal mining wastes are associated with serious environmental problems; they have potential as building materials, including alkali-activated cement. In this study, the effect of different coal mining wastes on the mechanical properties and microstructural development of alkali-activated materials (AAMs) was evaluated through XRD, SEM and FTIR spectroscopy. Different alkali-activated compounds were produced; the alkaline solution was composed of NaOH+Na2SiO3. The results obtained using the calcined coal sludge showed excellent mechanical performance, with compressive strength higher than 60 MPa. However, addition of metakaolin and ordinary Portland cement was necessary to increase the mechanical performance of calcined coal gangue materials. The formation of N-A-S-H gel and the incorporation of iron ions into the cementitious matrix were evidenced. Ultrasonic pulse velocity indicated the early polymerization during the reaction processes. The study verified that the different characteristics of the wastes influence the performance of alkali-activated materials.
[es]Los residuos de minería de carbón causan serios problemas ambientales, no obstante, tienen potencial como material de construcción, destacándose los cementos activados alcalinamente. El efecto de los residuos de carbón sobre las propiedades mecánicas y el desarrollo microestructural de los cementos activados alcalinamente son objeto de este estudio. Para ello, se utilizaron las técnicas de DRX, SEM y FTIR. Se produjeron diferentes compuestos activados alcalinamente, utilizando NaOH + Na2SiO3 como activador alcalino y curado térmico (50 °C durante 24 h). Los resultados obtenidos a partir del lodo de carbón calcinado mostraron un excelente rendimiento mecánico, con una resistencia a la compresión superior a 60 MPa. Sin embargo, en el caso de los materiales obtenidos a partir de la ganga de carbón calcinada, fue necesaria la adición de metacaolín y cemento Portland para aumentar sus resistencias mecánicas. Asimismo, se evidenció la formación de gel N-A-S-H y la incorporación de iones de hierro en la matriz cementante. El ensayo de velocidad de pulso ultrasónica indicó la polimerización inicial durante el proceso de reacción. Gracias a este se ha comprobado que las diferentes características de los residuos influyen en las propiedades y comportamiento de los correspondientes materiales activados alcalinamente.
[en] Lake Qinghai in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau is the largest lake in China. This study firstly reported the geochemistry of Cd in the lake. Water samples were collected from Lake Qinghai (n = 69) and Buha River (n = 12), while sediment (n = 22) and topsoil (n = 45) samples were collected from the lake and around the lake area, respectively. In addition, pore water samples (n = 20) were separated from sediment samples. Water samples were analyzed for pH, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl, S, and Cd, while sediment and topsoil samples were analyzed for K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, S, Sc, and Cd. The average concentration of Cd was 0.014 μg L−1 in the water of Lake Qinghai and 0.007 μg L−1 in the water of Buha River. However, the average concentration of Cd was 0.320 μg L−1 in the sediment pore water, much higher than that in the lake water and river water. Cadmium concentration in the lake water might be mainly controlled by salinity, while it in the pore water might be mainly controlled by carbonate minerals. Cadmium concentration in the river water might be controlled by alkalinity and pH. The average concentration of Cd in the sediment was 0.284 mg kg−1. The enrichment of Cd in the lake sediment was significantly higher than that in the topsoil around the lake. Anthropogenic atmospheric deposition of Cd did not led to the increase in dissolved Cd level in the lake water, but led to its enrichment in the lake sediment.
[en] External matching networks are crucial and necessary for operating capacitively coupled plasmas in order to maximize the absorbed power. Experiments show that external circuits in general heavily interact with the plasma in a nonlinear way. This interaction has to be taken into account in order to be able to design suitable networks, e.g., for plasma processing systems. For a complete understanding of the underlying physics of this coupling, a nonlinear simulation approach which considers both the plasma and the circuit dynamics can provide useful insights. In this work, the coupling of an equivalent circuit plasma model and an external electric circuit composed of lumped elements is discussed. The plasma model itself is self-consistent in the sense that the plasma density and the electron temperature is calculated from the absorbed power based on a global plasma chemistry model. The approach encompasses all elements present in plasma systems, i.e., the discharge itself, the matching network, the power generator as well as stray loss elements. While the main result of this work is the conceptual approach itself, at the example of a single-frequency capacitively coupled discharge its applicability is demonstrated. It is shown that it provides an effective and efficient way to analyze and understand the nonlinear dynamics of plasma systems including the external circuit and, furthermore, may be applied to synthesize optimal matching networks. (paper)
[en] This paper concerns an experimental study of the influence of short glass-fibres randomly oriented of a reinforced cement-based composite on the mechanical behaviour. The matrix material parameters used are: cement/sand ratio and water/cement ratio fixed at 0.5; the glass-fibre content (0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.5%) and fibre lengths (3, 6 and 12 mm). Composites mechanical characterisation under static behaviour at flexural and compression tests, shows that the reinforcement effect is beneficial only in flexural case. A synergy (matrix-reinforcement) was observed when fibre length of 12 mm is used with application rate of 2% in flexural. The fatigue behaviour determined by Wöhler plots (stress-number of cycles to rupture), derived from experimental results; showed a large results dispersion which is attributed to many causes initiating this damage. The cyclic tests illustrate brittle character of these materials; even with low-amplitude cycles of loading no adaptation of these materials can be reported.
[es]Este trabajo aborda el estudio experimental de la influencia de fibras de vidrio cortas orientadas al azar sobre el comportamiento mecánico de un composite reforzado de base cemento. Los parámetros de la matriz utilizados son: relación cemento/arena y relación agua/cemento fijada en 0,5; el contenido de fibra de vidrio (0%, 0,5%, 1,0%,1,5%, 2% y 2,5%) y longitudes de fibra (3, 6 y 12 mm). Los resultados mecánicos de estos compuestos bajo comportamiento estático (flexión y compresión), muestran que el efecto de refuerzo es beneficioso unicamente a flexión. Se observó una sinergia (refuerzo de la matriz) cuando se usó la fibra de 12 mm con una tasa de aplicación del 2% en flexión. El comportamiento a fatiga determinado por las curvas de Wöhler (número de ciclos hasta la rotura), derivado de los resultados experimentales; mostró una gran dispersión de resultados que se atribuye a las muchas causas que pueden iniciar este daño. Las pruebas cíclicas ilustran el carácter quebradizo de estos materiales y no se puede indicar que exista adaptación de estos materiales, incluso con ciclos de carga de baja amplitud.
[en] Acid atmospheric emissions within Europe and North America have decreased strongly since 1985 and most recent acidification studies have focused on the changes occurring within ecosystems as a result of this decreased deposition. This current study documents a soil acidification trend under ambient N deposition conditions over a 13 year period, suggesting that acidification continues to be a process of concern at this Calluna vulgaris dominated heathland with an acidic sandy soil. The annual manipulation of climatic conditions on this heathland simulated the predicted summer rainfall reduction (drought) and resulted in a long term retardation of the soil acidification trend. The pH of the soil solution significantly decreased over the course of the trial for both treatments, however, in the final 2 years the decline continued only in the Control treatment. This retardation is primarily associated with the reduction in rainfall leading to lower drainage rates, reduced loss of cations and therefore reduced lowering of the soil acid neutralizing capacity (ANC). However, a change in the underlying mechanisms also indicated that N transformations became less important in the Drought treatment. This change corresponded to an increase in groundcover of an air-pollution tolerant moss species and it is hypothesized that this increasing moss cover filtered an increasing quantity of deposited N, thus reducing the N available for transformation. A soil acidification lag time is expected to increase between the two treatments due to the cumulative disparity in cation retention and rates of proton formation. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study in which such acidification trends have been demonstrated in a field-scale climate manipulation experiment. -- Highlights: ► A unique investigation of acidification on a field-scale climate manipulation trial. ► Soil acidification occurred over 13 years of ambient N deposition conditions. ► Repeated annual drought retards acidification by lower cation loss. ► Increasing cover of pollution tolerant mosses may reduce N input and proton formation. ► Soil acidification is still a concern on this N-saturated system.
[en] This study evaluated the effect of the application of liquid aerobic treated manure (continuous liquid composting, CLC) on physical, chemical and biological soil properties, with the objective of monitoring changes induced by soil management with CLC as a biofertilizer. Colonia, Uruguay (lat. 34,338164 S, long. 57,222630 W). Soil’s chemical properties, including nitrogen mineralization potential (NMP) and 15 microbiological properties (microbial biomass carbon, MBC; mesophylic aerobic bacteria; actinobacteria; filamentus fungi; fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis; dehydrogenase; with NMP; acid and alkaline phosphatase; cellulolose degraders; P-solubilizing bacteria; nitrifying; denitrifying and free-living N-fixing microorganisms; glomalin; and soil-pathogenicity index, SPI) were evaluated in two sites with similar cropping history, with one and three years of respective CLC application. CLC application had significant effects on soil microbial biomass (p<0.05), soil enzyme (p<0.1) and functional groups activity (p<0.05). SPI decreased in both sites with CLC application. No significant variations were detected for the chemical variables, with the exception of NMP, which was significantly high (p<0.05) in soil treated with CLC at both sites. The improved biological soil properties analyzed (MBC, soil enzyme activities and SPI, together with NMP) emerged as reasonable indicators to assess and monitor the effects of CLC application.
[en] Starting from the Breit–Wigner model, we present a generalized approach for calculating the electrical conductance of a one-atom metallic constriction with electrochemical-potential control. In addition, the corresponding current intensity is determined. On the one hand, the nanoconstriction is conceived as a dilute (degenerate) Fermi gas (relatively low electron concentrations are considered) and, on the other hand, non-dilute gas is considered. Under these conditions, the Fermi energy-level into the Breit–Wigner formula is replaced by the corresponding chemical-potential energy. We emphasize the role of the optical potential as significant ingredient of the chemical potential.
[en] Since the 90s, the General Directorate for Rural Development of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, in coordination with the Department of Agriculture of the Regional Government of Castile and Leon, has carried out various activities with the aim of defining and understanding the behaviour of the Carracillo aquifer compared to artificial recharge trials on the surface. In 2006, with the collaboration of the Tragsa Group, artificial recharge with winter surplus of the Cega River in the western paleo-landform area was initiated. This sector has insufficient capacity to respond to all the water demand of the region. Driven by this situation, the work required to ascertain the possibilities of the aquifer in the western storage area sector were started. Among the activities carried out, the drilling of 27 boreholes to obtain continuous samples should be highlighted, plus 6 hydrogeological investigation boreholes, in which pumping tests were made, both individually and jointly. The vertical infiltration rate was estimated and the surface area for recharging was quantified. The water chemistry of the recharges from the Cega River and of the native aquifer was also studied in order to foresee what might be the compositional changes in the aquifer water. Based on this data a mathematical model, which had been developed in 2001, was updated by carrying out various simulations of possible scenarios. (Author)
[en] The electrochemical decoration of Au and Pd nanoparticles by Pd and Au atoms respectively is discussed in a statistical mechanical framework. It is found that depending on precursor nanoparticle size and shape, controlled decoration may be achieved in undersaturation or oversaturation conditions. Multilayer deposition is also considered, with the finding that this phenomenon is also size dependent.
[en] The conference is dedicated to the very actual problem of nuclear energy production and chemical technology, which has been in the spotlight of the world scientific community for many years - radiation and chemical safety. It is hope that the result of this Conference will be an important stage in the history of science in the area of Radiation Chemical Safety.