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[en] The French natural gas transmission network offers several entry and exit points (cross-border interconnections, LNG terminals, underground storage facilities), giving its users a choice between various supply combinations. Since 1 November 2018, the TRF has become the contractual framework for the French transmission network. It is built to a model that combines judicious investments in terms of infrastructure with contractual mechanisms which facilitate the management of the network's residual bottlenecks. A balanced supply management is required for the smooth running of the gas system in winter. The French operators, GRTgaz and Terega, must ensure the safety, efficiency and balance coverage of their networks at all times. In accordance with their obligations, the GRTgaz and Terega networks must have the necessary infrastructures to assure continuity in the transportation of gas, including in the event of a so-called P2 cold peak. In this context, in accordance with the Energy Code, art. L141-10, GRTgaz and Terega produce an annual Winter Outlook in order to verify compliance with these obligations and share their analysis of the coming winter with the market. The Winter Outlook is an exercise that makes it possible to assess the balance coverage for the French zone and downstream of the network bottlenecks for different gas demand scenarios and supply schemes. The Winter Outlook 2020-2021 is the 3. edition to be published that incorporates the provisions made as part of the creation of the TRF on 1 November 2018.
[en] Titanium and titanium pigments have very good potential growth in India with the demand surging in the end use sectors. The country has substantial raw materials and the wherewith al to produce. So is the case with zirconium. However, challenges include meeting environmental issues related to mining and also the need to obtain state of the art technologies for cleaner and cost-efficient processing. In this article, a detailed scenario is presented along with production and demand situation, the new projects on the anvil and application areas. (author)
[en] Illustrated by many maps, graphs and tables, this publication proposes a rather detailed overview of the status and development (production and location, employment, sector turnover, market and tariffs) of the different electricity-producing renewable energies: wind energy, photovoltaic energy, hydraulic energy, solid biomass, biogas, renewable urban wastes, geothermal energy, marine energies). This issue includes a chapter on the Regional plan for land use and sustainable development (sraddet), and a regional overview of the different electricity-producing renewable sectors. A focus is proposed for each French region.
[en] We analyzed the effect of the use of Eye Protective Equipment (EPE) and the best position to use individual dosimeters to estimate the eye lens radiation dose to a medical staff that works with yttrium-90. Three Alderson-Head-Phantoms were exposed to 58 MBq of Y for 24 h, in two different experiments: (1) at different dosimeter placements and (2) with and without the use of EPE. The measurements were carried on by thermoluminescent technique. Doses received by dosimeters on both lenses were more closely represented by the ones placed between the eyes than those on the temples, which underestimated the doses by a factor of 3. Also, the transmission factors showed that the EPE was able to reduce the H(3) values from about 78% to 92%. This study demonstrated that the use of EPE can optimize the Y eye lens dose. An individual dosimeter should be worn between the eyes for an appropriate estimate of this equivalent dose.
[en] Whereas the French law related to energy transition for a green growth defined the objective of energy self-sufficiency in overseas territories by 2030 (i.e. a higher objective than for the metropolitan mainland), this report proposes a synthesis and comparative analysis of studies performed for 6 territories (Mayotte, Reunion, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Guyana by 2030, and Corsica by 2050). The main lessons learned from these studies are highlighted: possibility of a 100 pc renewable electricity mix, issue of energy management, high reduction of the importance of Diesel plants, significant share of varying wind and photovoltaic energies, decrease of the costs of the produced energy, electricity systems appeared to be steady. It discusses the context and conditions to reach the defined objectives. It presents the methodology and main hypotheses of the performed studies: elaboration of a data set, optimisation of trajectories of evolution of the electricity mix for 5 scenarios, ex-post economic analysis, modelling of the 5 scenarios for each territory. Results are globally presented (an expected decrease of global costs of electricity, an electricity system which could remain steady in front of significant incidents), and the limitations and perspectives of the study are discussed. Results are then presented for the six different territories (data in 2017 and 2030, renewable potentials, mix analysis for each scenario, economic analysis of scenarios, focus on a specific scenario).
[fr]La loi relative a la transition energetique pour la croissance verte (LTECV) a fixe comme objectif de parvenir a l'autonomie energetique dans les departements et regions d'outre-mer (DROM) a l'horizon 2030. La Collectivite Territoriale de Corse vise ce meme objectif pour 2050. L'ADEME a souhaite mener une etude pour evaluer les implications techniques, organisationnelles et economiques qu'aurait un mix electrique tres fo tement renouvelable dans ces territoires, pour la majorite insulaires (Mayotte, La Reunion, la Guadeloupe, la Martinique, la Guyane et la Corse). Le vecteur electrique, permettant une production locale basee sur les energies renouvelables, et adapte a de multiples usages en substitution a des energies fossiles importees, pourrait jouer un role preponderant pour atteindre cet objectif ambitieux d'autonomie energetique. A l'heure de la revision des Programmations Pluriannuelles de l'Energie des ZNI (PPE), cette etude se veut un outil d'aide pour les instances decisionnelles afin de nourrir la reflexion des parties prenantes et ouvrir le champ des possibles.
[en] Thailand Nuclear Technology Service Centre (NTSC) is a nuclear service centre under the supervision of Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT), established in 2006. NTSC is responsible for several types of nuclear technology services, for example, analysis of samples’ compositions by using nuclear techniques, nuclear and radiation survey metres’ calibration, non-destructive testing, and to certify radiation levels of food products for exporters. NTSC has continuously maintained a high level of service quality and customer satisfaction which leads to achieving the highest growth among TINT’s service centres. Its revenue has grown more than 600% within 10 years (from $196,000 to $1.5 million). All of NTSC’s revenue is contributed back to TINT which later is distributed into TINT’s fringe benefits, incentive regimes, research instruments, and R&D projects. The circulation of this revenue, therefore, could back up TINT to secure its fundamental expenses in both organisational development and in R&D. Thus, the following questions arose, what have NTSC and its staff done to become successful? In addition, what could TINT learn from them if TINT desires to adopt NTSC management practices to other centres? Good service quality, a certified standard of services, a reasonable price, and quick response to customers’ queries are central strengths and means for differentiating NTSC from other organisations. These strengths create additional perceived value to customers and build up a recognisable brand image. Additionally, long-term direction, continuous development, i.e. in products, services and processes, knowledge on customer behaviour by a comprehensive database, NTSC’s management commitment, and strong teamwork with trust could be the factors influencing the success of the outcomes. The report concludes that technology service management becomes more an integrative discipline between nuclear technical knowledge, and business and management. It seems both tangible and intangible resources drive the value creation in this service organisation. The study of key drivers and their functions at each unit could be beneficial for the institute to accomplish and sustain the service organisation strategically. (author)
[en] This guide first indicates the steps followed in the realisation of a master scheme for an existing heat and cold network. These steps are then detailed. They comprise the definition of the scope and steering committee for the master scheme, a network diagnosis and an assessment of the quality of the provided service (situational analysis, quality assessment, analysis of the contractual context, technical audit, economic audit), a situational analysis of available heat and cold sources, a definition of envisaged evolutions and developments of the network (evolutions, renovation and optimization, route modifications, extension possibilities, densification possibilities, interconnection with other heat or cold networks, integration of renewable and recovery energies, assessment of the opportunity to create a public service for cold distribution), the contractual, political and legal evolution, the performance of economic, environmental and social analyses, a study synthesis with the choice of a scenario and the definition of an action plan, the implementation of selected orientations, and the selection of service provider to realise the master scheme.
[en] PET/MRI has recently been introduced into clinical practice. We prospectively investigated the clinical impact of PET/MRI compared with PET/CT, in a mixed population of cancer patients, and performed an economic evaluation of PET/MRI. Cancer patients referred for routine staging or follow-up by PET/CT underwent consecutive PET/CT and PET/MRI, using single applications of [F]FDG, [Ga]Ga-DOTANOC, or [F]FDOPA, depending on tumor histology. PET/MRI and PET/CT were rated separately, and lesions were assessed per anatomic region; based on regions, per-examination and per-patient accuracies were determined. A simulated, multidisciplinary team meeting served as reference standard and determined whether differences between PET/CT and PET/MRI affected patient management. The McNemar tests were used to compare accuracies, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for PET/MRI were calculated. Two hundred sixty-three patients (330 same-day PET/CT and PET/MRI examinations) were included. PET/MRI was accurate in 319/330 examinations and PET/CT in 277/330 examinations; the respective accuracies of 97.3% and 83.9% differed significantly (P < 0.001). The additional findings on PET/MRI - mainly liver and brain metastases - had implications for patient management in 21/263 patients (8.0%). The per-examination cost was 596.97 EUR for PET/MRI and 405.95 EUR for PET/CT. ICERs for PET/MRI were 14.26 EUR per percent of diagnostic accuracy and 23.88 EUR per percent of correctly managed patients. PET/MRI enables more appropriate management than PET/CT in a nonnegligible fraction of cancer patients. Since the per-examination cost is about 50% higher for PET/MRI than for PET/CT, a histology-based triage of patients to either PET/MRI or PET/CT may be meaningful.
[en] In Europe, lung cancer ranks third among the most common cancers, remaining the biggest killer. Since the publication of the first European Society of Radiology and European Respiratory Society joint white paper on lung cancer screening (LCS) in 2015, many new findings have been published and discussions have increased considerably. Thus, this updated expert opinion represents a narrative, non-systematic review of the evidence from LCS trials and description of the current practice of LCS as well as aspects that have not received adequate attention until now. Reaching out to the potential participants (persons at high risk), optimal communication and shared decision-making will be key starting points. Furthermore, standards for infrastructure, pathways and quality assurance are pivotal, including promoting tobacco cessation, benefits and harms, overdiagnosis, quality, minimum radiation exposure, definition of management of positive screen results and incidental findings linked to respective actions as well as cost-effectiveness. This requires a multidisciplinary team with experts from pulmonology and radiology as well as thoracic oncologists, thoracic surgeons, pathologists, family doctors, patient representatives and others. The ESR and ERS agree that Europe’s health systems need to adapt to allow citizens to benefit from organised pathways, rather than unsupervised initiatives, to allow early diagnosis of lung cancer and reduce the mortality rate. Now is the time to set up and conduct demonstration programmes focusing, among other points, on methodology, standardisation, tobacco cessation, education on healthy lifestyle, cost-effectiveness and a central registry.
[en] Several work sites where the first reactors of the third generation are being built have encountered major difficulties with several causes. This can, in large part, be set down to the absence, for twenty years now, of big programs of this sort in the United States and Europe. The costs of the first reactors of a new generation have ballooned. Thanks to accumulated feedback, this article shows how and why tomorrow's nuclear industry will be competitive, not only as it already is in Asia but also in other geographic zones. The range of economic results presented herein is coherent with public authorities' strategic analyses. The findings are: that a program for updating France's fleet of nuclear reactors is needed and should be started fast; that the closed cycle should be pursued; and that the first phase of the Cigeo Plan (for a nuclear waste repository) should be launched. (authors)