Results 1 - 10 of 1356
Results 1 - 10 of 1356. Search took: 0.026 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] The physical protection system (PPS) of a fictional small modular reactor (SMR) facility have been modeled as a platform for a game theoretic approach to security decision analysis. To demonstrate the game theoretic approach, a rational adversary with complete knowledge of the facility has been modeled attempting a sabotage attack. The adversary adjusts his decisions in response to investments made by the defender to enhance the security measures. This can lead to a conservative physical protection system design. Since defender upgrades were limited by a budget, cost benefit analysis may be conducted upon security upgrades. One approach to cost benefit analysis is the efficient frontier, which depicts the reduction in expected consequence per incremental increase in the security budget
[en] This paper proposes an original model for interpreting human errors, mainly violations, in terms of benefits, costs and potential deficits. This BCD model is then used as an input framework to learn from human errors, and two systems based on this model are developed: a case-based reasoning system and an artificial neural network system. These systems are used to predict a specific human car driving violation: not respecting the priority-to-the-right rule, which is a decision to remove a barrier. Both prediction systems learn from previous violation occurrences, using the BCD model and four criteria: safety, for identifying the deficit or the danger; and opportunity for action, driver comfort, and time spent; for identifying the benefits or the costs. The application of learning systems to predict car driving violations gives a rate over 80% of correct prediction after 10 iterations. These results are validated for the non-respect of priority-to-the-right rule.
[en] ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) systems reveal and pose non-typical risks due to its dependencies of interlinked business operations and process reengineering. Understanding of such type of risks is significant conducting and planning assurance involvement of the reliability of these complicated computer systems. Specially, in case of distributed environment where data reside at multiple sites and risks are of unique nature. Until now, there are brief pragmatic grounds on this public sector ERP issue. To analyze this subject, a partially organized consultation study was carried out with 15 skilled information systems auditors who are specialists in evaluating ERP systems risks. This methodology permitted to get more elaborated information about stakeholder's opinions and customer experiences. In addition, interviewees mentioned a numerous basic execution troubles (e.g. inadequately skilled human resource and insufficient process reengineering attempts) that lead into enhanced hazards. It was also reported by the interviewees that currently risks vary across vendors and across applications. Eventually, in offering assurance with ERP systems participants irresistibly stresses examining the process instead of system end product. (author)
[en] This article attempts to highlight the advantages of developing nuclear power in India so as to increase its energy security. Given the projected demand for electricity in the medium and long terms, it is imperative to utilise all possible sources of energy. It is necessary to develop nuclear power, independent of short-term economic consideration. Keeping in mind all the benefits of nuclear energy vis-a-vis the environment, and the technological advantages that we have, the case for according priority to nuclear power is worth consideration. (author)
[en] This paper examines the requirements that might reasonably be regarded as being implied by the ALARP principle. The principle stipulates that those responsible should reduce risks of death and injury for workers and members of the public to levels that are 'As Low As Reasonably Practicable'. The main aim of the paper is to resolve the apparent conflict between the ALARP principle on the one hand and, on the other, conventional social cost-benefit analysis. In particular, cost-benefit analysis prescribes that a safety improvement should be undertaken only if the cost of doing so is less than or equal to the resultant benefits, whereas some regulatory agencies interpret ALARP as requiring that the improvement must be undertaken provided that costs are not in 'gross disproportion' to benefits, which would clearly include cases in which costs might substantially exceed benefits.
[en] Less mature nuclear reactor technologies are characterized by a greater uncertainty due to insufficient detailed design information, operational data, cost information, etc., but the expected performance characteristics of less mature options are usually more attractive in comparison with more mature ones. The greater uncertainty is, the higher economic risks associated with the project realization will be. Within a comparative evaluation of less and more mature nuclear reactor technologies, it is necessary to apply economic risk measures to balance judgments regarding the economic performance of less and more mature options. Assessments of any risk metrics involve calculating different characteristics of probability distributions of associated economic performance indicators and applying the Monte-Carlo method. This paper considers the applicability of statistical risk measures for different economic performance indicators within a trial case study on a comparative evaluation of less and more mature unspecified LWRs. The presented case study demonstrates the main trends associated with the incorporation of economic risk metrics into a comparative evaluation of less and more mature nuclear reactor technologies
[en] Design for Decommissioning (DfD) is the design of nuclear facilities in a manner that facilitates ultimate decommissioning in as safe, technically efficient and cost effective way as possible. Strictly speaking, (DfD) should need minimal introduction and this paper should ideally be aimed at discussing the finer points of some improvement to a practice that is already widely embedded throughout the nuclear industry. The reality though is quite different. As an industry, we all know what DfD is and indeed we do incorporate it into our designs. However, application is at best patchy and there is little evidence of applying it to the level that will be advocated here. When applied at its highest level, DfD is all about truly designing nuclear facilities with their whole life cycle in mind, such that the decommissioning phase is an integral part of the design of a facility from the very first day. In this way, when a facility comes to the end of its operational life, it can move smoothly to Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) and then through the various phases of decommissioning. Demonstrating from the start that the nuclear industry addresses the challenges posed by decommissioning will help it to gain support from the regulators and the general public for proposals to build new nuclear generating capacity. (author)
[en] Infrared thermography is a proven predictive maintenance tool for improving equipment reliability and reducing maintenance costs. It has been identified as one of the maintenance technologies that could contribute to the reduction of OHN forced incapability factor. At Darlington NGD a program has been established by combining OHN and Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center (NMAC) operating experience. This presentation outlines the development and implementation of this program. The main points are: roles and responsibilities, equipment selection, software requirements, manpower level, inspection equipment, training and a cost/benefit review. (author)
[en] This paper will discuss the importance in recognizing the unique aspects of nuclear power generation in an industry facing deregulation, competitiveness, and commercialization. While exciting times of opportunity are again ahead for the nuclear industry, the excitement has to consider that there are differences between general nuclear and general commerce. These differences are driven by some fundamental principles that impact nuclear reactor operation and examples are given of how these principles must be protected to ensure that nuclear generation can be of continued benefit to the public. (author)
[en] The paper describes the preliminary results of a cost/benefit-analysis of multi-regional nuclear energy system approaches with a focus on how multi-regional approaches may benefit a growing nuclear energy system in various world regions also being able to limit, or even reduce, the costs associated with the nuclear fuel cycle and facilitating the introduction of nuclear energy in various regions in the world. The paper highlights the trade-off one might envisage in deploying such multi-regional approaches but also the pay backs possible and concludes on the economical benefits one may associate to regional fuel cycle centres serving a world-fleet of STAR (small fast reactors of long refueling interval) where these STARs may be competitive compared to the LWRs (Light Water Reactors) as a base-case nuclear reactor option. (authors)