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[en] Daylight is the occupied-range of light that is appropriate to the human visual response. Thus, it can contribute to human health, performance and productivity. Energy consumption can be reduced by improving in energy efficiency. The study emphaseson the design of lighting system that will be energy efficient. The basic purpose of this paper describes how to reduce the mounted lighting load and improve the illumination level as per international standards. A good lighting scheme should be based on more energy efficient & longer life and maintenance free equipment. In this research paper,a hypothetical study space is selected for the daylight analysis on the Ecotect and the Radiance software on summer solstice and winter solstice days under over cast sky condition. Ecotect software is used to determine lighting demand inside the selected study space and the obtained data is exported on Radiance for detailed and more accurate daylight analysis. It is pragmatic that illuminance level is varied with respect to date and time that are clearly expressed by the daily sun path and shadow range. It is also perceived that the installed artificial luminaries does not provide the required illuminance on the working plane and consume more energy. The major aim of this research is to reduce the lighting load by introducing energy efficient artificial luminaries into the room that provide the required illuminance level on the working plane. Lumen method is used to explain the energy saving which is carried out according to existing energy consumption compared with the proposed one. At the end cost comparison of energy consumption and payback period is also calculated. This study shows that overall cost saving in energy consumption is approximately 34.37% and the calculated payback period for the newly installed lights is comprising of approximately 11 months. (author)
[en] Nuclear Innovation Institute will seize the opportunity the nuclear industry faces today to accelerate our future by advancing technologies to adopt a modernized approach to make operations more efficient, adaptable and cost effective, and sustainable from a societal and environmental perspective
[en] The efficiency of the use of personnel protection shielding against intensive sources of ionizing radiation in the areas of work at the Shelter object is analyzed. Data on the practical application of protective shields when performing works to stabilize unstable structures of the Shelter object are presented. The models for the use of special protective cabins for the dismantlement of the Shelter object structures are justified; these models are planned to be implemented after the commissioning of the New Safe Confinement. It is shown, that use of shielding as one of the most effective methods for reducing the collective dose of radiation is crucial.
[en] This paper aims to incorporate rules of origin into international taxation into firms' global operations. The purposes of this research are to develop a new model for the global logistics network design of an assembly system with rules of origin and to analyze how the changes of international relationships will affect logistics network design and evaluation functions. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, we develop a global logistics network design model prescribing allocating amounts for production, assembly, and distribution. A path-based programming model is presented that represents the complexities associated with international and interenterprise issues. The objective is to minimize total costs, which are costs of production, assembly, transportation, and customs duties. In addition to customs duties, rules of origin, which were, not addressed in previous studies, are considered. Several computational experiments with industrial examples are presented to validate the model. Findings: The results indicate that the tax planning and alignment with the FTA might have a significant impact on the decision-making in the global supply chain for multi-national operating companies. Therefore, the multi-national operating companies need to be aware of importance of what-if simulation before or after FTA changes. Originality/value: While designing global supply chain, the tax effects and use of free-trade agreements (FTAs), were generally omitted. In this paper, we proposed a global logistics network design model with rules of origin. We show the effectiveness and necessity to consider rules of origin. This model can be used in making an optimal global logistics network for global companies. The results of this model are used as a target for a real optimal logistics network. Companies can make a better logistics network by using this model.
[en] From the point of view of cost control, what would be the optimal change in the electricity mix from 2020 to 2060 in order to ensure the right balance between hourly supply and demand? That is the question addressed by the ADEME (the French energy and environment agency) in work carried out in 2017 and 2018, based on an optimisation model that would minimise the total cost of the system over several decades. They show that, over the relevant time horizon, a number of major international trends will combine to significantly structure the national mix: a widespread reduction in the cost of renewables, an increase in inter-connectivity, and technological solutions for managing use. By anticipating these developments, it will be possible to raise public awareness and maximise the resulting benefits for the entire country
[fr]Sous l'angle de la maitrise des couts de revient, quelle serait la trajectoire optimale d'evolution du mix electrique, entre 2020 et 2060, assurant l'equilibre offre/demande horaire? C'est a cette question que l'ADEME a souhaite repondre par des travaux menes en 2017 et 2018, fondes sur un modele d'optimisation capable de minimiser le cout total du systeme sur plusieurs decennies. Ils montrent qu'a cet horizon de temps, certaines tendances majeures, d'ampleur internationale, se conjugueront pour structurer significativement les mix nationaux: baisse generalisee des couts des EnR, interconnexions renforcees et solutions technologiques de pilotabilite des usages. Anticiper ces evolutions permet d'eclairer le debat public pour mieux les accompagner et en maximiser les benefices pour la collectivite nationale
[en] This article is part of a project developed in Rio de Janeiro with professors, professionals and graduate students in Medical Physics. The goal is to study the communication of risks and benefits of the use of ionizing radiation in Institutions and Clinics of Rio de Janeiro in the areas of radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy, both as general information as well as information related to the Term of Informed Consent, a legal requirement in some hospital practices based on ionizing radiation. The project comprises five phases: (1) a survey of the relevant legislation in Brazil and worldwide; (2) survey of clinics that maintain communication about it proposing cooperation in the study (the following points will be carried out in the clinics with which to establish cooperation); (3) interviews with patients to verify the effectiveness of the existing communication, (4) preparation of new material for dissemination and (5) evaluation of the produced material. The present work presents results referring to phases (1) and (2). (author)
[en] The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) is an intergovernmental organisation, initiated and led by Germany, which, as its name suggests, promotes renewable energy. Similar to the Paris-based International Energy Agency (IEA), it serves as a platform for international cooperation, a centre of excellence and a knowledge repository for renewable energy policy, technology, resources and financing. IRENA announces its support for all forms of renewable energy (bio-energy, geothermal, hydropower, marine, and of course solar and wind energy). Although it is not a United Nations body, IRENA brings together 160 countries to encourage their governments to adopt enabling policies for renewable energy investments and provide practical tools and policy advice to accelerate their deployment. The ultimate goal is to facilitate knowledge sharing and technology transfer to provide clean and sustainable energy to the world's growing population. Founded in Bonn on 26 January 2009, where it has a technology centre, it is now based in Abu Dhabi. Funded by governments, it mainly produces statistical and technical documents, such as cost-benefit studies and data sheets for each type of renewable energy. In January 2019, it published a report entitled 'A New World - The geopolitics of the Energy Transformation', which cannot fail to attract the attention of anyone concerned about the world's progress
[fr]L'International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) est une organisation intergouvernementale voulue et portee par l'Allemagne, destinee a promouvoir, comme son nom l'indique, les energies renouvelables. Un peu a l'instar de l'Agence Internationale de l'energie (AIE) basee a Paris, elle sert de plate-forme de cooperation internationale, de centre d'excellence et de referentiel des connaissances en matiere de politique, de technologie, de ressources et financements pour les energies renouvelables. IRENA annonce etre en faveur de toutes les formes d'energies renouvelables (bioenergie, geothermie, hydroelectricite, marine, et bien entendu les energies solaire et eolienne). Bien qu'elle ne soit pas un organe des Nations unies, IRENA regroupe 160 pays, afin d'encourager les gouvernements de ceux-ci a adopter des politiques habilitantes pour les investissements dans les energies renouvelables, leur fournir des outils pratiques et des conseils politiques pour accelerer leur deploiement. Le but ultime est de faciliter le partage des connaissances et le transfert de technologie afin de fournir une energie propre et durable a la population croissante du monde. Fondee a Bonn le 26 janvier 2009, ou elle dispose d'un centre technologique, elle est basee aujourd'hui a Abu Dhabi. Financee par les gouvernements, elle produit essentiellement des documents de nature statistique et technique, telles des etudes cout-benefice et des fiches techniques pour chaque type d'energie renouvelable. Elle a publie en janvier 2019 un rapport dont le titre 'A New World - The geopolitics of the Energy Transformation' ('Un nouveau monde: La geopolitique de la transition energetique') ne peut manquer d'attirer l'attention de qui se preoccupe de la marche du monde
PurposeLife cycle assessment (LCA) is inherently complex and time consuming. The compilation of life cycle inventories (LCI) using a traditional process analysis typically involves the collection of data for dozens to hundreds of individual processes. More comprehensive LCI methods, such as input-output analysis and hybrid analysis can include data for billions of individual transactions or transactions/processes, respectively. While these two methods are known to provide a much more comprehensive overview of a product’s supply chain and related environmental flows, they further compound the complex and time-consuming nature of an LCA. This has limited the uptake of more comprehensive LCI methods, potentially leading to ill-informed environmental decision-making. A more accessible approach for compiling a hybrid LCI is needed to facilitate its wider use.
MethodsThis study develops a model for streamlining a hybrid LCI by automating various components of the approach. The model is based on the path exchange hybrid analysis method and includes a series of inter-related modules developed using object-oriented programming in Python. Individual modules have been developed for each task involved in compiling a hybrid LCI, including data processing, structural path analysis and path exchange or hybridisation.
Results and discussionThe production of plasterboard is used as a case study to demonstrate the application of the automated hybrid model. Australian process and input-output data are used to determine a hybrid embodied greenhouse gas emissions value. Full automation of the node correspondence process, where nodes relating to identical processes across process and input-output data are identified, remains a challenge. This is due to varied dataset coverage, different levels of disaggregation between data sources and lack of detail of activities and coverage for specific processes. However, by automating other aspects of the compilation of a hybrid LCI, the comprehensive supply chain coverage afforded by hybrid analysis is able to be made more accessible to the broader LCA community.
ConclusionsThis study shows that it is possible to automate various aspects of a hybrid LCI in order to address traditional barriers to its uptake. The object-oriented approach used enables the data or other aspects of the model to be easily updated to contextualise an analysis in order to calculate hybrid values for any environmental flow for any variety of products in any region of the world. This will improve environmental decision-making, critical for addressing the pressing global environmental issues of our time.
[en] The objective of this paper is to review approaches for a quantitative analysis of economic effects from bilateral linking of Emission Trading Systems. To this end, economic models that were principally deemed suitable for analysing these economic effects have been reviewed. The review is based on a number of specific criteria: the model type, the time horizon of the model and agents, the coverage of regions, economic activities, sectors and greenhouse gases as well as the possibility of sectoral disaggregation. The assessment shows that the five most suitable models are E3ME, GEM-E3, PACE, POLES and TIMES. The results for these models are provided in detail in the model discussion part of the paper.
[en] The second generation of gravitational-wave (GW) detectors are being built and tuned all over the world. The detection of signals from binary black holes is beginning to fulfil the promise of GW astronomy. In this work, we examine several possible configurations for third-generation laser interferometers in existing km-scale facilities. We propose a set of astrophysically motivated metrics to evaluate detector performance. We measure the impact of detector design choices against these metrics, providing a quantitative cost-benefit analyses of the resulting scientific payoffs. (paper)