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[en] To developed and introduced a measurement scale that may be useful to assess the competitive priorities practices in the manufacturing industries. The objective is to investigate the competitive priorities domains’ implementation and its defining measurement items emphasizing manufacturing industries in the Union Territory of Puducherry. The essential information has been gathered from 350 manufacturing firms by utilizing very much stretchered polls; most part of the data was gathered from best dimension working people like Operations Managers, General Managers and Directors. For analyzing the data the researchers used SPSS and LISREL 8.72 software packages. To find out the result the researchers applied Confirmatory Factor Analysis in this research work. Findings: From the six domains analyzed the result shows that Delivery plays an important role as it occupies the first rank among the domains in competitive priority. Next to Delivery, the majority of the firms fasten more importance to Quality as it ranks second. Cost is ranked as third, while Know-how is ranked as fourth, Flexibility is ranked as fifth and Customer Focus is ranked as sixth. Practical implications: Based on the existing recommendations on scale development literature, authors developed the measurement scale. This measurement scale is helpful for both academicians and practitioners. In this research work authors used the measurement scale to measure the competitive priorities domains. The research paper explains about the manufacturing industries situated in Union Territory of Puducherry. The researchers developed the measurement instrument of competitive priorities practices based on six domains namely quality, cost, delivery, flexibility, customer focus, and know-how. This research work gives innovative literature by recommendations and validating a measurement scale for the competitive priorities. The result reveals that the manufacturing enterprises in the Union Territory of Puducherry.
[en] Ionizing radiation is currently employed in a variety of areas, including in health care. However, due to its potentially harmful characteristics to human health, an adequate and continuous monitoring is necessary, especially regarding personal dosimetry. In this context, conjugated materials in solution have been pointed out as promising systems for the design of dosimeters. Despite the interesting properties of these systems, most of them have low sensitivity, which restricts their effective application in real situations. The present work aims the development of dosimetric systems based on solutions containing conjugated materials. Two systems were evaluated: 1) based on poly [(9,9- dioctylfluorenyl-2,7,diyl)-co-(1,4-vinylienephenylene)] polymer in chloroform solution; and 2) aqueous solutions of Indigo-carmine dye, with and without zinc oxide nanoparticles or inorganic salt (NaCl). Samples with different concentrations were considered and different X-ray doses were employed. The dosimetric responses were evaluated by analyzing the optical absorption spectrum of the systems in the ultraviolet visible range and the vibrational spectrum. The results point out the F8PV/CHCl3 system as a promising dosimeter with optimized responses in relation to other similar polymeric systems, allowing the measurement of doses lower than 5 Gy. The results were interpreted considering the interaction between free radicals generated from solvent dissociation with the polymeric chains. Non-significant responses were obtained for Indigo-carmine based systems which reinforces the essential role of halogens in the dosimetric properties of conjugated materials in solutions. (author)
[en] For a few years, with the aim of facilitating discussions about the energy and environmental transition, ADEME has been suggesting a scenario imagining the way the energy demand and energy mix from the major energy-consuming sectors (transport, building, agriculture, and industry) are going to follow by 2050. In the industrial sector, the two main factors of the energy demand are: the output levels and the energy efficiency level. Until now, the development prospects of the industrial energy efficiency are relatively well documented, but the production level projections for the French industry are more uncertain. That is why ADEME wanted to get equipped with a modelling tool for the industrial production levels through the demand for materials produced by the following 9 energy-consuming industries: steel, aluminum, clinker, glass, chlorine, ammonia, ethylene, papers and cardboard, and sugar. The aim is to take into account the market changes of these sectors, particularly focusing on the ones that are impacted by the energy transition. In this model, the 6 identified market categories are: (1) Mechanics, electricity, textile, miscellaneous, (2) Chemical products, (3) Packings, (4) Construction industry, (5) Energy production, (6) Transport. The methodological contribution of these works comprises two key elements, that were hardly ever jointly modelled until today: 1. Quantifying the production and consumption of 9 raw materials, as well as of consumer goods and capital goods (intermediate or end products) created from these materials. This quantification includes, among other elements, the import and export dimensions, as well as the recycling process. This quantification was made for the year 2014 from an analysis that cross-checked the main national or international data sources, and it is outlined in an 'input-output table' type matrix representation. 2. Modelling the production paths for the 9 materials studied, from this reference point and formulating assumptions related to the 6 markets. They concern the changing consumer demand, reuse and possible repair of some goods, technological improvements of material balance, incorporation rate of recycled material in manufacturing, but also trends in international trade. This synthesis summarizes the methodological principles selected. In order to make these works available to a wider audience, 2014 data are available in Excel format and a report details the data sources used. This report also contains some analysis on the critical factors needed for the development of the production of the different materials, whether from a technological point of view, in terms of market, or even relocation. At this point in our analysis, forward-looking considerations expressed in these documents aim at promoting exchanges between the different stakeholders and ADEME. They might not be the assumptions that will be retained later on as part of the new prospective scenarios proposed by ADEME, but they rely on orders of magnitude objectified and acknowledged through the cross-checking work of the data sources needed to establish reference data for 2014. Moreover, these works (including the related tools) are available to every entity willing to build its own modellings of the industrial production in regard to the issues at stake with the energy transition and the de-carbonation of the industry. ADEME remains attentive to any suggestion of change or improvement of these first elements, so that the stakeholders better understand what is at stake. Indeed, in view of the steady supply of data and studies related to these matters, some of these sources or references could not be integrated to the production schedules. Thus ADEME intends to continue to develop this tool by integrating new materials, but also by improving the modelling of the market developments in order to integrate concepts such as material replacements, or added-value approach instead of volume approach, in a more structural manner. This study was used to compare several bibliographic sources by combining 'bottom-up' data (for example, LCA of key products) and 'top-down' data (for example, production level on a sector). Some methodological choices were made in order to ensure overall consistency, thus avoiding to question institutional information sources too much. A homogeneous structure was used to handle the key parameters for each sector/market. However, the diversity of the collected data, as well as the complexity of each sector/market, put a brake on the analysis depth. We chose to record as much information as possible, which explains why certain chapters may look uneven
[en] This study explored radiology procedure’ cost across available units in the Radiology’s Department UKMMC (University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre). In 2011, the total number of radiology procedures carried out in this department was 121,221. Nevertheless, the estimating expenses of offering these procedures are not known. An economic evaluation study was employed and cost centric data mining based on costing activity method was used to determine the charge of the procedure in every centre. Information on seven cost parameters was collected for each procedure: human resources, consumables, equipment, reagents, administration, maintenance and utilities. The results of the study show that the highest percentage of cost parameter for the human resource was Radiology (Mobile 57.5%, the highest percentage of cost parameter for consumables and reagent was EIR (Endovascular International Radiology) Unit 75.8 percent and Medical Nuclear Unit 68.1% was the highest percentage of cost parameter for reagent. The MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Unit 81.4 percent was the highest cost parameter for equipment. The most top mean cost procedures were EIR MYR4330 and it was revealed that procedures with the highest difference ratio were procedures in EIR (18.50). Finding of this study is very useful to UKMMC management since it helps to enhance the efficiency of services and reduce unnecessary radiology procedures in patients’ management. (author)
[en] Story or legend, the 'It's the economy, stupid' slogan that supposedly helped bring Bill Clinton to power in 1992, highlights the tendency of voters to prioritize the economy in times of crisis. After the lock-down imposed by Covid-19, there may be a strong temptation, when developing and implementing an exit strategy, to favour taking into account directly observable economic impacts, without any other considerations, as was the case after the 2008 crisis. Here we show that any exit policy must be subject to a broad set of requirements which values the economic, environmental and health 'co-benefits' of public action. Among other examples, de-carbonized transportation measures (from bicycles to rail freight) have direct effects in terms of the economy (jobs, added value in the sectors involved), the environment (reduction of air pollution which costs France about 50 billion euros/year, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions) and health (this same pollution kills 50,000 people/year, and weakens populations when they are exposed to pandemics). Doing this is a matter of responding to 'social demand': in the same way, as Emmanuel Macron recently observed, when we emerge from the crisis, 'people will no longer tolerate breathing polluted air'. And, since between the triggering of the sub-prime crisis in 2008 and the exit from the emergency phase of the Covid-19 crisis, French debt will have increased by 50% of GDP, reducing the public authorities' margin for budgetary manoeuvres, maximizing the co-benefits of action is no longer simply an option, it is an imperative: 'It's (also) the economy, stupid'
[fr]Histoire ou legende, le slogan 'it's the economy, stupid' aurait porte Bill Clinton au pouvoir en 1992, marquant le primat des urgences economiques dans le choix des electeurs en temps de crise. Au-dela du confinement impose par le Covid-19, la tentation pourrait etre forte, au moment d'elaborer et de mettre en oeuvre la sortie de crise, de privilegier la prise en compte des effets economiques directement observables, sans autre consideration, comme ce fut le cas apres la crise de 2008. Nous montrons ici qu'une politique de sortie de crise doit etre soumise a un cahier des charges elargi qui valorise les 'co-benefices' economiques-environnementaux-sanitaires de l'action publique. Entre autres exemples, des mesures de transport decarbone (du velo au fret ferroviaire) produiront des effets economiques directs (emplois, valeur ajoutee dans les filieres impliquees), environnementaux (reduction de pollutions de l'air qui coutent a la France environ 50 milliards/an, attenuation des emissions de gaz a effet de serre) et sanitaires (ces memes pollutions tuent 50 000 personnes/an, et fragilisent certaines populations face a des pandemies). Ce faisant, il s'agira de repondre a une 'demande sociale': ainsi que le soulignait recemment Emmanuel Macron, au sortir de la crise sanitaire 'les gens ne supporteront plus de respirer un air pollue'. Et, comme entre le declenchement de la crise des 'subprimes' en 2008 et la sortie de la phase d'urgence de la crise Covid-19, la dette francaise aura augmente de 50 % du PIB, reduisant les marges de manoeuvre budgetaires des pouvoirs publics, valoriser tous les co-benefices de l'action n'est plus une simple option, mais un imperatif: 'It's (also) the economy, stupid'
[en] Agriculture production can be enhanced by considering all the farm operations especially the harvesting of crops is the more sensitive operation. The selection of appropriate farm machinery for harvesting not only save the harvesting time but also enhance the farm profitability. The agro-climatic and economic factors are the major hindrance on the way to adopt the harvesting machinery and latest movers in Pakistan. The objective of this work was to redesign an engine operated reaper at affordable price and performance evaluation of this reaper for harvesting three different crops (wheat, rice and brassica). Three levels of reaper ground speed (S) (1.94, 2.54 and 3.18 kmh/sup -1/) and three different levels of moisture contents (MC) for each crop were considered as factors. A (3 x 3) factorial analysis was conducted to see the impact of “MC” and “S” on percent slippage, field efficiency and shatter losses. The main effects of S and MC were significant for all the crops for each factor (p<0.05), except MC which was non-significant for shatter losses in wheat and rice (p= 0.0667) and (p=0.847), respectively. Statistical Analysis showed that selected levels of MC and S had significant effect on % slippage, field efficiency and shatter losses. The cost analysis indicated that the breakeven point of the modified reaper can be achieved after 19 days of purchase. Study demonstrated that grain losses can be minimized, and farm profitability can be maximized by selecting suitable combination of M and S. (author)
[en] Quantify potential economic benefits of implementing computer-generated skid-trail networks over the traditional operator-designed skid-trail networks on steep terrain ground-based forest operations. Area of study: A 132-ha harvest operation conducted at the University of Kentucky’s Robinson Forest in eastern Kentucky, USA. Materials and methods: We compared computer-generated skid-trail network with an operator-designed network for a 132-ha harvest. Using equipment mounted GPS data and a digital elevation model (DEM), we identified the original operator-designed skid-trail network. Pre-harvest conditions were replicated by re-contouring terrain slopes over skid-trails to simulate the natural topography and by spatially distributing the harvestable volume based on pre-harvest inventories and timber harvest records. An optimized skid-trail network was designed using these pre-harvest conditions and compared to the original, operator-designed network. The computer-generated network length was slightly longer than the operator-designed network (53.7 km vs. 51.7 km). This also resulted in a slightly longer average skidding distance (0.71 km vs. 0.66 km) and higher total harvesting costs (5.1 $ ton-1 vs. 4.8 $ ton-1). However, skidding costs of the computer-generated network were slightly lower (4.2 $ ton-1 vs. 4.3 $ ton-1). When comparing only major skid-trails, those with ≥ 20 machine passes, the computer-generated skid-trail network was 28% shorter than the operator network (9.4 km vs. 13.1 km). Research highlights: This assessment offers evidence that computer-generated networks could be used to generate efficient skidtrails, help determine skidding costs, and assess further potential economic and environmental benefits.
[en] Field emission arrays are attracting the attention of the scientific community due to their unique emission properties and potential technological applications. The present work deals with the Fowler–Nordheim (FN) plot behavior for virtual arrays composed of ZnO and Cu emitters with predefined geometrical properties. Electron emission is assumed to occur in these arrays based on fundamental electron tunneling with preserved emission characteristics in both semiconducting and metallic emitters (i.e., degree of field penetration near the emitter surface, band bending effects and saturation of the conduction band current at high fields). The effect of the emitter’s size distribution and the dependence of conduction band current saturation on emitter’s diameter for ZnO emitters are taken into consideration. Results show that the FN plot characteristics are greatly influenced by the investigated parameters signifying the complicated nature of field emission from these arrays. The present work is believed to be of significance for interpretation of field emission data and can assist further development of field emission arrays for future applications. (author)
[en] In this paper, the National MRV system was reviewed with a goal of clarifying emission reductions in energy sector and provided guidelines for implementation of this system in Iran. Before starting the measurement step, it is necessary to specify the specific objective, calculate the cost benefit of all measures, identify the existing mechanisms, define the gaps and existing limitations and the institutional arrangements and governmental structure. A governmental structure should include: the steering committee at the government level, a management team composed of various levels, including companies, industry, associations, government departments and research centers for data collection, monitoring and reporting and implementing mitigation actions, and a central secretariat at Department of Environment to register, review and compile reports and other matters related to the Secretariat.