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[en] This paper shows that to achieve grid level of reliability with wind solar and storage units alone is impossibly expensive so practical designs have always incorporated standby generation of some sort or other. This paper describes a simulation technique that enables a cost minimal, balanced hybrid system design. (author)
[en] Coastal flood defense systems can consist of multiple lines of defense. In case of a system with a front and a rear defense (e.g. a storm surge barrier and levees), the front defense can improve the reliability of the rear defense by reducing the load on this rear defense. This paper develops a framework in order to assess whether including the influence of such a load reduction influences the economically optimal safety targets of both defenses. The economic optimization is carried out using two approaches: a simplified method developed to explore the behavior of the economic optimization with a front and rear defense, and a numerical framework geared towards practical applications. The numerical framework provides more flexibility in defining risk, cost and damage functions, and emphasizes on the applicability and tractability of the necessary steps from an engineering perspective. Both approaches are used in a hypothetical case study in order to quantify the effect of including a load reduction on the economically optimal safety targets. The results indicate that if a front defense can create a significant risk reduction in a cost efficient manner, more efficient economically optimal safety targets can be found by including the load reduction. - Highlights: • In a coastal system, a front defense improves the reliability of the rear defense. • This interaction is analytically incorporated in a simplified economic optimization. • For more complex (realistic) economic optimization, a numerical framework is proposed. • Including the interaction of a coastal system improves flood prevention investments.
[en] Process improvement is that part of process improvement, which drives beneficial change in process performance. Improvement in results can be accomplished in many ways. One way is by improving the ways by which the results are being measured. Results can often be improved by running the process with the planned resources and executing the tasks as planned. Failures are more often the result of people not running the process as planned - they take short cuts, make mistakes, and don't take action when necessary. From organizational perspective, Performance Indicators can offer powerful insights into the status of the Company activity and processes functioning. They enable consistent tracking of objectives and strategic alignment, definition of success and critical success factors, as well as visibility into launch plans, performance, and overall quality and timeliness. Successful performance measurement system adheres to the following main principles: Measure only what is important; Focus on customer needs; Involve employees in the design and implementation of the measurement system. Performance measurement is defined as a process of evaluation of company activities performance relative to a defined goal. The basic concept of performance measurement involves: Planning and meeting operating goals; Detecting deviations from planned levels of performance and restoring performance to the planned levels, or Achieving new levels of performance. Performance measurements are very important, because they can be used for: Control - Measurements help to reduce variation; Self-assessment - Measurements can be used to assess how well the process is doing, including improvements that have been made; Continuous improvement - Measurements can be used for identification of the process trends and to determine process efficiency and effectiveness, as well as opportunities for improvement; Management assessment - without measurements there is no way to be certain that the company meeting the objectives or that the company is being effective and efficient. The Performance measurement system is composed of three elements: Performance criteria - relative elements used for comparison at the performance evaluation; Performance indicators - specific values of the performance criteria over some specified time period, or 'numerical or quantitative indices that show how well each objective is being met'. Performance standards - accepted levels of performance for each criterion. The purpose of this report is to present an approach for measurement of business effectiveness of Consultancy Company, operating in energy sector. (author).
[en] Deliberately small nuclear reactors are making their way on the market. They are proposed by manufacturers worldwide (SMART, 4S, SSTAR, mPower, Nuscale, etc...). The idea of an economic attractiveness of Small and Medium sized Reactors (SMR) is counterintuitive, due to the loss of Economy of Scale on a capital intensive investment. Nevertheless a broader understanding of capital costs drivers has shaped a new concept of Economy of Multiples, that applies on multiple NPP deployment. It relies on learning accumulation to mitigate construction costs of later NPP units; design modularization to exploit the benefits of serial production; co-siting economies to decrease the incidence of fixed and site-related costs. We assume that smaller NPP size fosters design modularization and simplifications, with related cost savings. While the effect of modularization on construction costs has been modeled, the estimation of design-based savings may be the upmost arbitrary and controversial, but the underlying assumption is that the lower the plant size, the higher may be the Design cost-saving factor. This work aims to analyze at what extent and conditions the Economy of Multiples holds against the Economy of Scale, when NPP of different sizes are deployed in multiple units, considering that the Economy of Multiples smoothes its benefits with the increase in number of units installed and that the maximum size of the sites is a limit to its application on large reactors (LR). The limit case-study of Very Small Reactors (VSR) is investigated, representing a massive NPP deployment and a huge loss of Economy of Scale. Our analysis is performed by mean of INCAS (Integrated model for the Competitiveness Analysis of Small-medium modular reactors) Polimi's proprietary simulation code. Our results show that the Economy of Multiples holds as a competitive edge for Medium and Small Reactors even when nuclear site may host multiple LR: 8-9% design cost saving is able to grant the same economic performance of a fleet of LR, even with higher construction cost estimates. On the contrary, VSR need to achieve more stretching degree of design simplification and related cost savings (up to 15%) in order to be competitive with LR
[en] Depending on the constantly increasing demands on assessment of investment projects, especially assessment of large-scale projects in transport and important European projects with wide impacts, there is constantly increasing focus on risk management, whether to find mitigations, creating corrective measures or their implementation in assessment, especially in the context of Cost-Benefit analysis. To project assessment is often used implementation of certain risk variables, which can generate negative impacts of project outputs in framework of assess. Especially in case of transportation infrastructure projects is taken much emphasis on the influence of risk variables. However, currently in case of assessment of transportation projects is in Czech Republic used a few risk variables, which occur in the most projects. This leads to certain limitation in framework of impact assessment of risk variables. This papers aims to specify a new risk variables and process of applying them to already executed project assessment. Based on changes generated by new risk variables will be evaluated differences between original and adapted assessment. (paper)
[en] Daylight is the occupied-range of light that is appropriate to the human visual response. Thus, it can contribute to human health, performance and productivity. Energy consumption can be reduced by improving in energy efficiency. The study emphaseson the design of lighting system that will be energy efficient. The basic purpose of this paper describes how to reduce the mounted lighting load and improve the illumination level as per international standards. A good lighting scheme should be based on more energy efficient & longer life and maintenance free equipment. In this research paper,a hypothetical study space is selected for the daylight analysis on the Ecotect and the Radiance software on summer solstice and winter solstice days under over cast sky condition. Ecotect software is used to determine lighting demand inside the selected study space and the obtained data is exported on Radiance for detailed and more accurate daylight analysis. It is pragmatic that illuminance level is varied with respect to date and time that are clearly expressed by the daily sun path and shadow range. It is also perceived that the installed artificial luminaries does not provide the required illuminance on the working plane and consume more energy. The major aim of this research is to reduce the lighting load by introducing energy efficient artificial luminaries into the room that provide the required illuminance level on the working plane. Lumen method is used to explain the energy saving which is carried out according to existing energy consumption compared with the proposed one. At the end cost comparison of energy consumption and payback period is also calculated. This study shows that overall cost saving in energy consumption is approximately 34.37% and the calculated payback period for the newly installed lights is comprising of approximately 11 months. (author)
[en] In this paper, a combined Production Line Design (PLD) process which includes many design aspects is presented, developed and validated. Design/methodology/approach: The PLD process is based on the SADT (Structured Analysis and Design Technique) diagram and the Axiomatic Design (AD) method. Practical implications: For a purpose of validation, this proposed process has been applied in a manufacturing company and it has been validated by simulation. Findings: The results of the validation indicated that the production line designed by this process is outperformed the initial line of the company. Originality/value: Recently, the problems of production line design (PLD) have attracted the attention of many researchers. However, only a few studies have treated the PLD which includes all design aspects. In this work, a combined PLD process is presented. It should be noted that the proposed process is simple and effective.