Results 1 - 10 of 437
Results 1 - 10 of 437. Search took: 0.021 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] Depending on the constantly increasing demands on assessment of investment projects, especially assessment of large-scale projects in transport and important European projects with wide impacts, there is constantly increasing focus on risk management, whether to find mitigations, creating corrective measures or their implementation in assessment, especially in the context of Cost-Benefit analysis. To project assessment is often used implementation of certain risk variables, which can generate negative impacts of project outputs in framework of assess. Especially in case of transportation infrastructure projects is taken much emphasis on the influence of risk variables. However, currently in case of assessment of transportation projects is in Czech Republic used a few risk variables, which occur in the most projects. This leads to certain limitation in framework of impact assessment of risk variables. This papers aims to specify a new risk variables and process of applying them to already executed project assessment. Based on changes generated by new risk variables will be evaluated differences between original and adapted assessment. (paper)
[en] Daylight is the occupied-range of light that is appropriate to the human visual response. Thus, it can contribute to human health, performance and productivity. Energy consumption can be reduced by improving in energy efficiency. The study emphaseson the design of lighting system that will be energy efficient. The basic purpose of this paper describes how to reduce the mounted lighting load and improve the illumination level as per international standards. A good lighting scheme should be based on more energy efficient & longer life and maintenance free equipment. In this research paper,a hypothetical study space is selected for the daylight analysis on the Ecotect and the Radiance software on summer solstice and winter solstice days under over cast sky condition. Ecotect software is used to determine lighting demand inside the selected study space and the obtained data is exported on Radiance for detailed and more accurate daylight analysis. It is pragmatic that illuminance level is varied with respect to date and time that are clearly expressed by the daily sun path and shadow range. It is also perceived that the installed artificial luminaries does not provide the required illuminance on the working plane and consume more energy. The major aim of this research is to reduce the lighting load by introducing energy efficient artificial luminaries into the room that provide the required illuminance level on the working plane. Lumen method is used to explain the energy saving which is carried out according to existing energy consumption compared with the proposed one. At the end cost comparison of energy consumption and payback period is also calculated. This study shows that overall cost saving in energy consumption is approximately 34.37% and the calculated payback period for the newly installed lights is comprising of approximately 11 months. (author)
[en] Highlights: • Extensive range of environmental impacts is rarely considered in decision analysis. • LCA can provide sophisticated environmental profiles of decision alternatives. • LCA and other decision analysis tools have different goals, principles and systems. • Consistency of study systems between LCA and other tools is the key for integration. - Abstract: Decision analysis is often used to help decision makers choose among alternatives, based on the expected utility associated to each alternative as function of its consequences and potential impacts. Environmental impacts are not always among the prioritized concerns of traditional decision making. This has fostered the development of several environmental problems and is nowadays a reason of concern. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) can assess an extensive range of environmental impacts associated with a product or service system and support a life cycle perspective on the alternative products or service systems, revealing potential problem shifting between life cycle stages. Through the integration with traditional risk based decision analysis, LCA may thus facilitate a better informed decision process. In this study we explore how environmental impacts are taken into account in different fields of interest for decision makers to identify the need, potential and obstacles for integrating LCA into conventional approaches to decision problems. Three application areas are used as examples: transportation planning, flood management, and food production and consumption. The analysis of these cases shows that environmental impacts are considered only to a limited extent in traditional evaluation of transport and food projects. They are rarely, if at all, addressed in flood risk management. Hence, in each of the three cases studied, there is a clear need for the inclusion of a better and systematic assessment of environmental impacts. Some LCA studies have been conducted in all three research areas, mainly on infrastructures and production systems. The three cases show the potential of integrating LCA into existing decision analysis by providing the environmental profiles of the alternatives. However, due to different goals and scopes of LCA and other decision analysis approaches, there is a general lack of consistency in study system scoping in terms of considered elements and boundaries, in uncertainty treatment, and in applied metrics. In the present paper, we discuss the obstacles arising when trying to integrate LCA with conventional evaluation tools and we propose a research agenda to eventually make such integration feasible and consistent.
[en] The hourly operating cost of equipment provides an assessment of its operational efficiency, in monetary terms. Often, enterprises need to assess product quality. By the proposed method, without complex cost/benefit calculations, the proportion of the cost corresponding to each piece of equipment in a production system may be calculated simply on the basis of the labor intensity of machining and the operational efficiency OEE of the equipment. It is also useful for managers and workers to know the cost of an hour of downtime for particular equipment and to understand the losses in the shop and the enterprise as a whole. Such awareness assists in loss prevention.
[en] Less mature nuclear reactor technologies are characterized by a greater uncertainty due to insufficient detailed design information, operational data, cost information, etc., but the expected performance characteristics of less mature options are usually more attractive in comparison with more mature ones. The greater uncertainty is, the higher economic risks associated with the project realization will be. Within a comparative evaluation of less and more mature nuclear reactor technologies, it is necessary to apply economic risk measures to balance judgments regarding the economic performance of less and more mature options. Assessments of any risk metrics involve calculating different characteristics of probability distributions of associated economic performance indicators and applying the Monte-Carlo method. This paper considers the applicability of statistical risk measures for different economic performance indicators within a trial case study on a comparative evaluation of less and more mature unspecified LWRs. The presented case study demonstrates the main trends associated with the incorporation of economic risk metrics into a comparative evaluation of less and more mature nuclear reactor technologies
[en] The site of the Monts d’Arrée located in Brennilis in the area of Brittany in France is a former 70 MWe heavy water reactor. EDF is now in charge of its decommissioning. The effluent treatment facility (STE) is currently being dismantled. As the future use of the site will exclude any nuclear activity, EDF is taking site release into consideration. Therefore a land management strategy for the land and soil is needed. An optimized approach is being proposed for the STE, to the French Regulator. In France, there is no specific regulation related to contaminated land (either radiologically contaminated or chemically contaminated). The French Nuclear Safety Authority’s doctrine for radioactively contaminated land is a reference approach which involves complete clean-up, removing any trace of artificial radioactivity in the ground. If technical difficulties are encountered or the quantity of radioactive waste produced is too voluminous, an optimised clean-up can be implemented. EDF has been engaged since 2008 in drawing up a common guideline with other French nuclear operators (CEA and AREVA). The operators’ guideline proposed the first steps to define how to optimise nuclear waste and to carry out a cost-benefits analysis. This is in accordance with the IAEA’s prescriptions.
[en] Highlights: • 24.7% of China’s final energy consumption in 2012 is caused by household consumption. • Energy linkages between supply side and demand side are shown in a Sankey diagram. • Adopting low-carbon consumption and decreasing energy intensity can conserve energy. • Energy conservation potential of several household consumption behaviors is revealed. - Abstract: The household sector has become the second largest consumer of final energy, ranking only next to the industrial sector in China. Except for the direct energy consumption of the household sector, people’s consumption activities also indirectly affect the energy consumption of multiple production sectors. Previous studies have shed light upon consumer-oriented energy consumption and carbon emission, however, the critical problem of sector-to-sector energy linkages between supply side and demand side has not been fully addressed. Besides, there also lacks sufficient research on the energy conservation potential of residents’ lifestyle change. This paper investigates the direct and indirect impact of household consumption activities on energy consumption in China from the consumers’ lifestyle perspective based on the input-output analysis. The relationship between household energy consumption and industrial energy consumption and the effect of lifestyle change on energy conservation are also considered. It is estimated that China’s energy consumption caused by household consumption activities in 2012 is 29141.97 PJ in total, which accounts for 24.7% of the total final energy consumption. The indirect energy consumption of household consumption activities is 1.35 times more than the direct energy consumption. Housing activities cause the most indirect energy consumption, and the smelting and pressing industry of ferrous metal is the most energy-consuming industrial sector influenced by household consumption. We also find that adopting low-carbon consumption pattern and accelerating the decrease of energy intensity are both effective means to reduce the total energy consumption by scenario analysis. Finally the energy conservation potential by comparing different types of household consumption behaviors is revealed to make policy makers form vivid impressions on the importance of demand side regulation.
[en] Highlights: • We investigated HIEC in Guangdong Province from a sectoral perspective. • Energy-saving potential for sectors and paths are examined by sensitivity analysis. • Sectors with large hidden energy-saving responsibilities deserve more attentions. • First four PLs, especially for PL0, are the most important contributors to HIEC. • Formation, length and magnitude of a path determine its energy-saving priority. - Abstract: Household indirect energy consumption (HIEC) is a major part of household energy consumption. It is critical to uncover energy-saving responsibilities associated with regional HIEC for China to respond climate change. In this study, we investigated the HIEC of Guangdong Province in 2012 from a sectoral perspective, using environmentally extended input-output analysis. Structural path analysis and sensitivity analysis were used to assess the key paths of the different production layers (PLs) for total, urban, and rural HIEC. Our results show that: (1) there are significant differences between urban and rural HIEC. (2) The “Electricity and Steam Production and Supply”, “Transport, Storage, Postal and Telecommunication Services”, and “Residential Services” sectors are the main drivers of both urban and rural HIEC. Furthermore, sectors with large hidden energy-saving responsibilities deserve more attentions. (3) Urban HIEC is more complicated than rural HIEC, and the first four PLs (PL0, PL1, PL2 and PL3), especially PL0, are the most important contributors to HIEC. (4) For PL0, only 11, 11 and 9 paths result in significant energy-saving for total, urban and rural HIEC, respectively. (5) Energy management for high-order PLs is sector-dependent and should consider the formation, length, and magnitude of the key paths.