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[en] The global imperative has changed the way people look at the cost-benefit scenarios of power generation in a fundamentally different way. Thus, decisions related to power production must be seen in the context of cost as well as social and environmental impact. In other words, it is not only 'how much' energy is produced but also 'how' it is produced that will deeply impact the collective future and the health of the planet. Nuclear power, a proven and mature greenhouse emissions-free power-generation technology, is an environment-friendly option that has undeniable role to play in mankind's fight against global warming
[en] The efficiency of the use of personnel protection shielding against intensive sources of ionizing radiation in the areas of work at the Shelter object is analyzed. Data on the practical application of protective shields when performing works to stabilize unstable structures of the Shelter object are presented. The models for the use of special protective cabins for the dismantlement of the Shelter object structures are justified; these models are planned to be implemented after the commissioning of the New Safe Confinement. It is shown, that use of shielding as one of the most effective methods for reducing the collective dose of radiation is crucial.
[en] To developed and introduced a measurement scale that may be useful to assess the competitive priorities practices in the manufacturing industries. The objective is to investigate the competitive priorities domains’ implementation and its defining measurement items emphasizing manufacturing industries in the Union Territory of Puducherry. The essential information has been gathered from 350 manufacturing firms by utilizing very much stretchered polls; most part of the data was gathered from best dimension working people like Operations Managers, General Managers and Directors. For analyzing the data the researchers used SPSS and LISREL 8.72 software packages. To find out the result the researchers applied Confirmatory Factor Analysis in this research work. Findings: From the six domains analyzed the result shows that Delivery plays an important role as it occupies the first rank among the domains in competitive priority. Next to Delivery, the majority of the firms fasten more importance to Quality as it ranks second. Cost is ranked as third, while Know-how is ranked as fourth, Flexibility is ranked as fifth and Customer Focus is ranked as sixth. Practical implications: Based on the existing recommendations on scale development literature, authors developed the measurement scale. This measurement scale is helpful for both academicians and practitioners. In this research work authors used the measurement scale to measure the competitive priorities domains. The research paper explains about the manufacturing industries situated in Union Territory of Puducherry. The researchers developed the measurement instrument of competitive priorities practices based on six domains namely quality, cost, delivery, flexibility, customer focus, and know-how. This research work gives innovative literature by recommendations and validating a measurement scale for the competitive priorities. The result reveals that the manufacturing enterprises in the Union Territory of Puducherry.
[en] This paper aims to incorporate rules of origin into international taxation into firms' global operations. The purposes of this research are to develop a new model for the global logistics network design of an assembly system with rules of origin and to analyze how the changes of international relationships will affect logistics network design and evaluation functions. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, we develop a global logistics network design model prescribing allocating amounts for production, assembly, and distribution. A path-based programming model is presented that represents the complexities associated with international and interenterprise issues. The objective is to minimize total costs, which are costs of production, assembly, transportation, and customs duties. In addition to customs duties, rules of origin, which were, not addressed in previous studies, are considered. Several computational experiments with industrial examples are presented to validate the model. Findings: The results indicate that the tax planning and alignment with the FTA might have a significant impact on the decision-making in the global supply chain for multi-national operating companies. Therefore, the multi-national operating companies need to be aware of importance of what-if simulation before or after FTA changes. Originality/value: While designing global supply chain, the tax effects and use of free-trade agreements (FTAs), were generally omitted. In this paper, we proposed a global logistics network design model with rules of origin. We show the effectiveness and necessity to consider rules of origin. This model can be used in making an optimal global logistics network for global companies. The results of this model are used as a target for a real optimal logistics network. Companies can make a better logistics network by using this model.
[en] The presentation shows the results of analysis of the systemic problems in the modern nuclear industry (thermal reactors in open nuclear fuel cycle); and perspectives are discussed for creating, on this basis, of a new nuclear power system (NPS) of the present-day century, accounting for technological preparedness and cost efficiency. There established the conditions for stage-by-stage development of the two-component NPS, with full involvement of natural uranium into the fuel cycle. In doing so, the advanced, safe and reliable BN reactor being the thermal energy source would provide involvement of uranium-238 into the fuel cycle, and perform functions of the extended plutonium-based fuel breeding and minor actinide burn-off. This explains its role 1) as a backbone element of the new technological platform of the nuclear industry of XXI century and 2) as a key technological element of the closed nuclear fuel cycle A two-component NPS is selected whose basis is light water plants (VVER generation 3+ reactors) and advanced fast sodium reactors (BN) as well as the centralized closed nuclear fuel cycle enterprises to provide the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and the multiple combined nuclear materials and minor actinides recycling. The radwaste management would include high-level radwaste withdrawal, conditioning and disposal. There it is shown that at the current development stage, i.e. in nuclear power of XXI century, and provided that the nuclear/radiation safety and non-proliferation requirements are met, the two-component NPS would ensure sustainable and cost-effective power generation in conditions of the increasing global constraints as to natural fuel sources and environmentally adverse discharges from the fossil plants
[en] Gravitational wave (GW) interferometers are complex instruments, requiring years of commissioning to achieve the required sensitivities for the detection of GWs, of order ≲10−21 in dimensionless detector strain, in the tens of Hz to several kHz frequency band. Investigations carried out by the GEO 600 detector characterization group have shown that detector characterization techniques are useful when planning for commissioning work. At the time of writing, GEO 600 is the only large scale laser interferometer currently in operation running with a high duty factor, , limited chiefly by the time spent commissioning the detector. The number of observable GW sources scales as the product of the volume of space to which the detector is sensitive and the observation time, so the goal of commissioning is to improve the detector sensitivity with the least possible detector down-time. We demonstrate a method for increasing the number of sources observable by such a detector, by assessing the severity of non-astrophysical noise contaminations to efficiently guide commissioning. This method will be particularly useful in the early stages and during the initial science runs of the aLIGO and adVirgo detectors, as they are brought up to design performance. (paper)
[en] From the point of view of cost control, what would be the optimal change in the electricity mix from 2020 to 2060 in order to ensure the right balance between hourly supply and demand? That is the question addressed by the ADEME (the French energy and environment agency) in work carried out in 2017 and 2018, based on an optimisation model that would minimise the total cost of the system over several decades. They show that, over the relevant time horizon, a number of major international trends will combine to significantly structure the national mix: a widespread reduction in the cost of renewables, an increase in inter-connectivity, and technological solutions for managing use. By anticipating these developments, it will be possible to raise public awareness and maximise the resulting benefits for the entire country
[fr]Sous l'angle de la maitrise des couts de revient, quelle serait la trajectoire optimale d'evolution du mix electrique, entre 2020 et 2060, assurant l'equilibre offre/demande horaire? C'est a cette question que l'ADEME a souhaite repondre par des travaux menes en 2017 et 2018, fondes sur un modele d'optimisation capable de minimiser le cout total du systeme sur plusieurs decennies. Ils montrent qu'a cet horizon de temps, certaines tendances majeures, d'ampleur internationale, se conjugueront pour structurer significativement les mix nationaux: baisse generalisee des couts des EnR, interconnexions renforcees et solutions technologiques de pilotabilite des usages. Anticiper ces evolutions permet d'eclairer le debat public pour mieux les accompagner et en maximiser les benefices pour la collectivite nationale
[en] This article is part of a project developed in Rio de Janeiro with professors, professionals and graduate students in Medical Physics. The goal is to study the communication of risks and benefits of the use of ionizing radiation in Institutions and Clinics of Rio de Janeiro in the areas of radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy, both as general information as well as information related to the Term of Informed Consent, a legal requirement in some hospital practices based on ionizing radiation. The project comprises five phases: (1) a survey of the relevant legislation in Brazil and worldwide; (2) survey of clinics that maintain communication about it proposing cooperation in the study (the following points will be carried out in the clinics with which to establish cooperation); (3) interviews with patients to verify the effectiveness of the existing communication, (4) preparation of new material for dissemination and (5) evaluation of the produced material. The present work presents results referring to phases (1) and (2). (author)
[en] The IMACLIM models have been developed at Cired since the 1990's under Jean-Charles Hourcade's scientific supervision. They currently exist in 3 versions: - A static version, IMACLIM-S, is mostly applied at a national level to produce counterfactual analyses of environmental fiscal reforms at some historical or projected temporal horizon. - A dynamic, recursive version, IMACLIM-R, articulates growth trajectories for 12 world regions, based on a back-and-forth dialogue between a succession of static macro-economic equilibria akin to those of IMACLIM-S, and a set of sectoral modules framing the evolution of explicit energy supply and demand technologies. - A prospective version, IMACLIM-P, quite similar to IMACLIM-S, computes the equilibrium consequences of targeted parameters changes between one historical year and a mid- to long-term future (rather than between two counterfactual equilibria at a single year, as IMACLIM-S). This descriptive of IMACLIM-P 3.4 massively draws on that of IMACLIM-S 2.3, from which the model directly derives. It thus benefits from contributions by Camille Thubin and Emmanuel Combet (cf. Ghersi et al., 2011). (author)
[en] The discipline called radiation protection usually deals with control systems such as radiation shielding, instruments, and the thickness of the shields. The reliability of the control systems is usually studied by safety experts. This article describes the evolution of common safety approaches for dealing with these two types of situations.