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[en] Daylight is the occupied-range of light that is appropriate to the human visual response. Thus, it can contribute to human health, performance and productivity. Energy consumption can be reduced by improving in energy efficiency. The study emphaseson the design of lighting system that will be energy efficient. The basic purpose of this paper describes how to reduce the mounted lighting load and improve the illumination level as per international standards. A good lighting scheme should be based on more energy efficient & longer life and maintenance free equipment. In this research paper,a hypothetical study space is selected for the daylight analysis on the Ecotect and the Radiance software on summer solstice and winter solstice days under over cast sky condition. Ecotect software is used to determine lighting demand inside the selected study space and the obtained data is exported on Radiance for detailed and more accurate daylight analysis. It is pragmatic that illuminance level is varied with respect to date and time that are clearly expressed by the daily sun path and shadow range. It is also perceived that the installed artificial luminaries does not provide the required illuminance on the working plane and consume more energy. The major aim of this research is to reduce the lighting load by introducing energy efficient artificial luminaries into the room that provide the required illuminance level on the working plane. Lumen method is used to explain the energy saving which is carried out according to existing energy consumption compared with the proposed one. At the end cost comparison of energy consumption and payback period is also calculated. This study shows that overall cost saving in energy consumption is approximately 34.37% and the calculated payback period for the newly installed lights is comprising of approximately 11 months. (author)
[en] In this paper, a combined Production Line Design (PLD) process which includes many design aspects is presented, developed and validated. Design/methodology/approach: The PLD process is based on the SADT (Structured Analysis and Design Technique) diagram and the Axiomatic Design (AD) method. Practical implications: For a purpose of validation, this proposed process has been applied in a manufacturing company and it has been validated by simulation. Findings: The results of the validation indicated that the production line designed by this process is outperformed the initial line of the company. Originality/value: Recently, the problems of production line design (PLD) have attracted the attention of many researchers. However, only a few studies have treated the PLD which includes all design aspects. In this work, a combined PLD process is presented. It should be noted that the proposed process is simple and effective.
[en] Remanufactured products, in addition to being environment friendly, are popular with consumers because they can offer the latest technology with lower prices in comparison to brand new products. However, some consumers are hesitant to buy remanufactured products because they are skeptical about the quality of the remanufactured product and thus are unsure of the extent to which the product will render services when compared to a new product. A strategy that remanufacturers may employ to entice customers is to offer warranties on remanufactured products. To that end, this paper studies and scrutinizes the impact of offering renewing warranties on remanufactured products. Specifically, the paper suggests a methodology which simultaneously minimizes the cost incurred by the remanufacturers and maximizes the confidence of the consumers towards buying remanufacturing products. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses discrete-event simulation to optimize the implementation of a two-dimensional renewing warranty policy for remanufactured products. The implementation is illustrated using a specific product recovery system called the Advanced Remanufacturing-To-Order (ARTO) system. The experiments used in the study were designed using Taguchi’s Orthogonal Arrays to represent the entire domain of the recovery system so as to observe the system behavior under various experimental conditions. In order to determine the optimum strategy offered by the remanufacturer, various warranty and preventive maintenance scenarios were analyzed using pairwise t-tests along with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey pairwise comparisons tests for every scenario. Findings: The proposed methodology is able to simultaneously minimize the cost incurred by the remanufacturer, optimize the warranty price and period, and optimize the preventive maintenance strategy resulting in increased consumer confidence. Originality/value: This is the first study that evaluates in a quantitative and comprehensive manner the potential benefits of offering warranties with preventive maintenance on remanufactured products.
[en] The methodology for the application of the principles of radiation protection on the selected countermeasures in linking with a dynamic food chain model DYNACON was studied using the cost and benefit analysis and its application results were analyzed in terms of net benefit. The considerations focus on the simple and easy countermeasures to carry out in the first harvest after the deposition for animal products, such as the ban of food consumption and the substitution of clean fodder. The net benefit of the selected countermeasures depended on a variety of factors such as foodstuffs, radionuclides, starting time and performing duration of countermeasures. The methodology used in this study may serve as a basis for the planning and preparedness of long-term countermeasures as well as the rapid decision of countermeasures against the contamination of agricultural ecosystems in a nuclear emergency
[en] Social cost-benefit analysis is a well-established method for guiding decisions about safety investments, particularly in situations in which it is possible to make accurate predictions of future performance. However, its direct applicability to situations involving large degrees of uncertainty is less obvious and this raises the question of the extent to which social cost-benefit analysis can provide a useful input to the decision framework that has been explicitly developed to deal with safety decisions in which uncertainty is a major factor, namely risk analysis. This is the main focus of the arguments developed in this paper. In particular, we provide new insights by examining the fundamentals of both approaches and our principal conclusion is that social cost-benefit analysis and risk analysis represent complementary input bases to the decision-making process, and even in the case of large uncertainties social cost-benefit analysis may provide very useful decision support. What is required is the establishment of a proper contextual framework which structures and gives adequate weight to the uncertainties. An application to the possibility of a robbery at a cash depot is examined as a practical example.
[en] It is internationally proposed that generic intervention levels (GILs) and generic action levels, determined based on cost-benefit analyses, be used as the decision criteria for public protective actions in a nuclear emergency. Operational intervention levels (OILs) are directly or easily measurable quantities corresponding to these generic levels. To assess the necessity oj protective actions in a nuclear emergency, it is important that the environmental monitoring data required for applying and revising OILs should be promptly produced. It is discussed what and how to do for this task in the course of emergency response and preparedness
[en] Applications of control systems in our industrial life have played a significant role to improve the quality of doing things. Major issues in the design of the control systems are to provide the autonomy, flexibility at low cost. This work is an effort to report a conceptual framework to develop industrial control system. Control systems designed with this framework are low cost and have flexibility to take decisions autonomously using fuzzy control discrete time event modeling integrated into it. (author)