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[en] Analytical models for the determination of thin film growth modes were developed on the basis of the simultaneous multilayer (SM) growth model. The models take into account up-step and down-step diffusion, enabling quick identification of the growth modes from experimentally obtained spectroscopic data. We tested the models by applying them to growth data from the literature that had been recorded via Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and low-energy ion scattering (LEIS). We discuss the applicability of the new analytical models in comparison with the diffusion-corrected simultaneous multilayer (DCSM) model
[en] X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, ESCA) is an ideal tool for identifying differences in surface chemistry. In the past, it has lacked the spatial resolution as well as the performance of elemental or even chemical state imaging, to be of significant use in detecting most microscopic surface phenomena. The recent development of improved micro- or small spot-XPS systems with near-micron spatial resolution as well as outstanding chemical state image performance has opened up a significant opportunity to undertake more detailed studies of micro-structured or micro-patterned surfaces or technical samples with locally distributed impurities. The introduction of a new detector type, the delay-line detector (DLD), to XPS-equipments allows for the first time the acquisition of quantifiable XPS images. This study is intended primarily to explore the capabilities of quantitative ESCA-imaging with respect to the possibilities and limits
[en] Ga drops on a Ge(111) surface have been investigated by scanning Auger electron spectroscopy. Surface segregation of both Ga on Ge, and of Ge on Ga, was observed at about 600 K. These results are found to be consistent with the various driving forces of surface segregation. Following ion sputtering of the Ge substrate at about 400 K, the Ga drops spontaneously move over the substrate, thereby healing sputter-induced damage at the Ge surface
[en] In recent years, Ni/Cu films and multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) have attracted much interest due to their potential advantage in magneto-optical recording. While the magnetic anisotropy of this system has been intensively investigated and interpreted, a major question concerning the magnitude of the magnetic moments remains unresolved. In this report, using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) on a Ni/Cu/Si(0 0 1) epitaxied wedge sample, we show that Cu atoms diffuse in the growing Ni layer. We have used a dynamical segregation model to reproduce our experimental results and to calculate the Cu concentration profile. The observed chemical mixing may explain the dramatic decrease of the atomic magnetic moment for ultra-thin films reported in previous experimental works [Phys. Rev. B 55 (17) (1997) 11422]
[en] In modern technology, thin films are shrinking more and more to a thickness of few nanometers. Analytical investigations of such thin films using the traditional sputter depth profiling, sputtering in combination with surface-analytical techniques, have limitations due to physical effects especially for very thin films. These limitations are pointed out and some alternatives are discussed. Non-destructive analysis with angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is demonstrated to be a useful method for such investigations. Both qualitative and quantitative results can be obtained even for complex layer structures. Nevertheless, there are also limitations of this method and some alternatives or complementary methods are considered
[en] We investigated the frictional properties and the durability of self-assembled double layers using pin-on-plate methods and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We found that double layers made from octadecanethiol (ODT) and mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHA) connected via Cu ions exhibited lower frictional coefficients (approximately 0.1-0.15) than that of ODT monolayer (∼0.2). XPS measurements revealed that ratios of C(1s)/Au(4f) after friction tests were lower than that before friction but was higher than that measured on ODT monolayer, suggesting that some of ODT molecules were desorbed from the surface, i.e. formation of loosely packing molecular layers after friction. These findings suggest that the loosely packed molecular layer contributed to decrease the friction
[en] Friction and wear properties of different perfluoropolyether (PFPE) films with and without hydrogen termination on Si (Si-H) were studied using a ball-on-disk tribometer. The physical and chemical properties of the films were evaluated using contact angle measurement, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Coating of PFPEs onto bare Si has lowered the coefficient of friction (from 0.6 for Si to ∼0.05 with PFPE) and enhanced the wear durability (20,000 times) in comparison with those for bare Si which failed immediately. The introduction of hydrogen termination onto Si prior to PFPE coating has further increased the wear durability of PFPE with different functional groups several times (>5 times) under a normal load of 30 mN and a sliding speed of 0.052 m/s.
[en] Accurate measurement of work function is essential in many areas of research and development. Despite the importance of photoelectron spectroscopy as a technique for measuring work function, there has been relatively little discussion in the literature of how to conduct accurate measurements. We review the basic technique of measuring work function using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and discuss several common sources of error related to the experimental setup. In particular, the sample-detector geometry is found to be a key experimental parameter; accurate results are only obtained when the sample is perpendicular to the electron detector. In addition, we demonstrate that photoelectron work function values correspond to the minimum work function 'patch' on a non-uniform surface, in contrast to the average work function measured by other techniques, such as the Kelvin probe method.
[en] Plasma-assisted functional films have significant potential in various engineering applications. They can be tailored to impart desired properties by bonding specific molecular groups to the substrate surface. The aim of this investigation was to develop a fundamental understanding of the atomic level growth, coverage and functional effectiveness of plasma nano-films on flat surfaces and to explore their application-potential for complex and uneven shaped nano-materials. In this paper, results on plasma-assisted nano-scale fluorocarbon films, which are known for imparting inertness or hydrophobicity to the surface, will be discussed. The film deposition was studied as a function of time on flat single crystal surfaces of silicon, sapphire and graphite, using microwave plasma. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used for detailed study of composition and chemistry of the substrate and coating atoms, at all stages of deposition. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was performed in parallel to study the coverage and growth morphology of these films at each stage. Combined XPS and AFM results indicated complete coverage of all the substrates at the nanometer scale. It was also shown that these films grew in a layer-by-layer fashion. The nano-films were also applied to complex and uneven shaped nano-structured and porous materials, such as microcellular porous foam and nano fibers. It was seen that these nano-films can be a viable approach for effective surface modification of complex or uneven shaped nano-materials
[en] Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) has been used extensively for microfluidic components and as substrates for biological applications. Since the native nature of PDMS is hydrophobic it requires a functionalization step for use in conjunction with aqueous media. Commonly, oxygen plasma treatment is used for the formation of hydrophilic groups on the surface. However, the hydrophilic nature of these surfaces is short lived and the surfaces quickly revert back to their original hydrophobic state. In this work, branched-polyethylenimine (b-PEI) was used for long term modification of plasma treated PDMS surface. Contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used for characterization of the modified surfaces and their stability with time was studied. The results obtained demonstrate that comparatively higher stability, hydrophilic, positively charged surfaces can be obtained after b-PEI treatment. These b-PEI treated PDMS surfaces can be used as fluidic channels for the separation of molecules as well as a substrate for the adherence of bio-molecules or biological cells.