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[en] After having evoked the context (commitments related to the Paris Agreement, ecological transition, objective of carbon neutrality, reduction of the dependence of industry on fossil energies, use of decarbonized inputs to produce heat, and necessary development and deployment of new processes and also new technologies for CO2 capture, storage and valorization); this contribution proposes a critical discussion of the exploitation of hydrogen combustion, of its strengths and weaknesses, of its scientific and technological locks. Then, it discusses the exploitation of the combustion of hydrogen-natural gas mixtures (Hythane): production, strengths and weaknesses, benefits of such a combustion (due to energy properties of natural gas, to energy storage and transport, to CO2 emission reduction). It addresses the case of ammoniac combustion: NH3 production, use as fuel or energy vector, scientific and technological locks.
[en] In recent years, annual electricity consumption in France amounted to around 470 TWh, 90% being decarbonized; at the same time, oil and natural gas consumption has been around 900 TWh and 450 TWh respectively. At present, electricity accounts for only a quarter of energy consumption. Energy savings alone will not be enough to move away from oil and natural gas: as equally anticipated for Germany and Great Britain, French reliance on electricity will have to increase significantly to replace oil and gas consumption. Various recent projections underestimate this growth. However, erroneous assumptions would affect the security of our energy supply and the daily life of the French people; the impacts on the cost of electricity and energy in general, and on the competitiveness of our economy would be considerable. In this position paper, the National Academy of Technologies of France (NATF) proposes a reasonable assessment of electricity demand in 2050. It points out that the European electricity system will be more vulnerable in coming years. It proposes some principles for the choice of economic data to be used in optimisation models. On the basis of these elements, it highlights some key points for managing change in the electricity system.
[fr]La consommation annuelle d'electricite en France a ete d'environ 470 TWh, decarbonee a plus de 90%; dans le meme temps, les consommations de petrole et de gaz naturel ont ete respectivement d'environ 900 TWh et 450 TWh. L'electricite ne represente aujourd'hui que le quart de la consommation d'energie. Les seules economies d'energie ne suffiront pas a sortir du petrole et du gaz naturel: comme le prevoient egalement l'Allemagne et la Grande-Bretagne, le recours a l'electricite en France devra croitre significativement pour se substituer aux consommations de petrole et de gaz. Diverses estimations recentes sous-estiment cette croissance. Or des anticipations erronees affecteraient la securite de notre approvisionnement energetique et la vie quotidienne des francais; les impacts sur le cout de l'electricite et des energies en general, et sur la competitivite de notre economie seraient majeurs. Dans cet avis, l'Academie des technologies propose une evaluation raisonnable de la demande d'electricite en 2050. Elle rappelle que le systeme electrique europeen sera plus fragile dans les prochaines annees. Elle propose quelques principes pour le choix des donnees economiques a retenir dans les optimisations. A partir de ces elements, elle souligne quelques points clefs de la conduite du changement du systeme electrique.
[en] This publication comments the content of a report issued by RTE and the IEA on the conditions for a technical feasibility of scenarios exhibiting a high penetration of renewable energies (ENR) in France. It indicates the four conditions to be met for a security of supply and for the integration of very high proportion of renewable energies into a large scale electricity system: stability of the electricity system, supply security, operational reserves, grid development. These four conditions and the associated technical feasibilities stated in the RTE-IAE report are then discussed. The authors finally discuss whether a 100 pc renewable energy objective is actually to be wished.
[en] RTE is the mainspring in enhancing energy transition and developing renewable energy in France. To further knowledge on the subject, RTE publishes a detailed inventory of existing and projected wind and photovoltaic installations. This vast overview was achieved with the help of ENEDIS (ERDF), SER (Association of renewable energy industrialists), and ORE Agency (Power network operators). The outstanding facts of this 24. edition of the renewable electricity synthesis are: 50% of renewable energy production capacity are from solar or wind origin. Solar and wind parks power reached almost 28 GW by December 31, 2020. With more than 25.7 GW of installed power, hydroelectricity remains the first renewable energy source in France. The bio-energy power generation park exceeds now 2.1 GW. All sources included, the renewable energy sources have grown by 637 MW during the last quarter 2020, reaching 55.9 GW at December 31, 2020. Power distribution systems are continuously evolving in order to meet the 40% renewable electricity production goal by 2030.
[en] In 2020, Total produced 447 units of fossil fuels for every 1 unit of renewable energy. Nonetheless, despite its desire to rename itself Total Energies, the major continues to invest heavily in the development of new fossil energy projects, such as the highly controversial EACOP oil project such as the highly controversial EACOP oil project in Uganda and Tanzania, or in the Arctic. 90% of its capital expenditure remains oriented towards fossil fuels and the trends in its hydrocarbon production could result in an increase of more than 50% between 2015 and 2030. Thus, the way French financial players are adapting their relationship with Total SE, in a context of climate emergency, is a good indicator of the sincerity of their commitments, and of the challenges related to their success. This briefing takes stock of Total SE's climate promises and of the way financial players have treated such a heavyweight in the energy sector until now. It also sketches out possible courses of action. The first follows a global approach that extends across the entirety of financial actors' portfolios and the companies they support. The second follows a sector-based approach aimed at finding immediate solutions for the most polluting sectors, which also turn out to involve the heaviest ESG and financial risks. For an oil and gas company, these are unconventional hydrocarbons - shale gas and oil, oil sands and drilling in the Arctic and deep waters. While acting on the first axis will only end up having an impact after several years, targeting the most polluting sectors makes it possible to meet the scientific imperative of reducing our greenhouse gas emissions by 7.6% every year until 20301. The actions to be taken on both axes must of course be based on science, which stipulates that oil production must be reduced by 4% and gas production by 3% per year by 2030 in order to meet the 1.5 deg. C objective.
[fr]En 2020, Total a produit 447 unites d'energies fossiles pour 1 d'energies renouvelables. Or malgre sa volonte de se renommer TotalEnergies, la major continue d'investir massivement dans le developpement de nouveaux projets d'energies fossiles, comme le tres controverse projet petrolier d'EACOP entre l'Ouganda et la Tanzanie, ou des projets d'energies fossiles en Arctique. 90% de ses depenses d'investissements demeurent orientees vers les energies fossiles et l'evolution de sa production d'hydrocarbures nous amene vers une augmentation de plus de 50% de cette derniere entre 2015 et 2030. Ainsi, la maniere dont les acteurs financiers francais adaptent leur relation a Total SE dans un contexte d'urgence climatique est un bon indicateur de la sincerite de leurs engagements precites, et des defis lies a leur succes. Ce briefing analyse les promesses climatiques du groupe, ainsi que la maniere dont les acteurs financiers ont jusqu'a present traite un tel poids lourd du secteur energetique. Il presente enfin les pistes d'actions possibles. Le premier suit une approche globale qui couvre l'integralite des portefeuilles des acteurs financiers et des entreprises qu'ils soutiennent. Le deuxieme suit une approche sectorielle visant a trouver des solutions immediates pour les secteurs les plus polluants, lesquels s'averent concentrer aussi les plus lourds risques ESG et financiers. Pour une entreprise gaziere et petroliere, il s'agit des hydrocarbures non conventionnels - gaz et petrole de schiste, sables bitumineux et forages en Arctique et en eaux tres profondes. Alors qu'agir sur le premier axe ne pourra produire des impacts qu'au bout de quelques annees, viser les secteurs les plus polluants permet de repondre a l'imperatif scientifique de baisser tous les ans nos emissions de gaz a effet de serre de 7,6% jusqu'en 20301. Les actions a mener sur les deux axes doivent bien entendu etre fondees sur la science, laquelle stipule qu'il faut baisser de 4% la production petroliere et de 3% la production gaziere par an d'ici 2030 afin de tenir l'objectif de 1,5 deg. C.
[en] The French natural gas transmission network offers several entry and exit points (cross-border interconnections, LNG terminals, underground storage facilities), giving its users a choice between various supply combinations. Since 1 November 2018, the TRF has become the contractual framework for the French transmission network. It is built to a model that combines judicious investments in terms of infrastructure with contractual mechanisms which facilitate the management of the network's residual bottlenecks. A balanced supply management is required for the smooth running of the gas system in winter. The French operators, GRTgaz and Terega, must ensure the safety, efficiency and balance coverage of their networks at all times. In accordance with their obligations, the GRTgaz and Terega networks must have the necessary infrastructures to assure continuity in the transportation of gas, including in the event of a so-called P2 cold peak. In this context, in accordance with the Energy Code, art. L141-10, GRTgaz and Terega produce an annual Winter Outlook in order to verify compliance with these obligations and share their analysis of the coming winter with the market. The Winter Outlook is an exercise that makes it possible to assess the balance coverage for the French zone and downstream of the network bottlenecks for different gas demand scenarios and supply schemes. The Winter Outlook 2020-2021 is the 3. edition to be published that incorporates the provisions made as part of the creation of the TRF on 1 November 2018.
[en] The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) have jointly committed to collaboration between their respective programmes, and to share information in selected areas of mutual interest. One of the key areas of emphasis in both the GIF and the IAEA programmes is the safety of liquid metal cooled fast reactors (LMFRs) including sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs) and lead or lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) cooled fast reactors (LFRs). A particularly important area of mutual interest is the harmonization of safety approaches, safety requirements, Safety Design Criteria (SDC), and Safety Design Guidelines (SDG) for the next-generation advanced LMFRs under development worldwide. This topic has gained increased importance in the aftermath of the accident that occurred in 2011 at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, which drew renewed attention to nuclear safety and to the importance of an international safety framework for reactors currently in operation as well as for new designs.
[en] Summary - Introduction: ESFR SMART project is a four year project that began in September 2017.; It follows the Euratom CP ESFR project which was also a follow up of the European Fast Reactor (EFR) project.; Main purpose of the ESFR SMART project is to improve the reactor safety, and make a proposal for new safety options, based on both present and previous projects experience.; 1500MWe SFR pool type reactor with oxide fuel.; The deliverable giving the list of proposals for these new safety measures has been provided during the first year of the project with the drawings.; Several papers have been presented to explain these options in ICAPP 2018, ICONE 2018, ICAPP 2019, ICAPP 2020, Physor 2020; Reactivity control; Containment; Decay heat removal; Secondary loops and sodium fires detection; Conclusion: List of ESFR SMART simplifications - Dome (or polar table) suppression.; Safety vessel suppression, functions taken over by the reactor pit.; Primary sodium containment improvement with a massive metallic roof and other dispositions.; Natural convection cooling enhancement in the secondary side.; Optimized and simplified DHR dedicated circuits. (no DHX system in the primary vessel, no supplementary sodium circuits to manage).; Secondary loops with higher level of safety for sodium fires and sodium water reaction. Passive systems / Intrinsic safety - Passive control rods that stop the plant on physical parameters.; Low void effect in the core able to support severe transients (ULOF, etc.).; Passive decay heat removal by DHRS 2 and 1 (12 independent loops in natural convection) using only air, always available.; Thermal pumps totally passive to increase flow rate in natural convection and the decay heat removal systems capabilities,; Long delay before necessity of operator action, even in case of loss of water and loss of electricity supply.
[en] Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical element in the universe, but producing it in pure form for a range of industrial processes is energy intensive, with a significant carbon footprint. Nuclear power reactors can be coupled with a hydrogen production plant to efficiently produce both energy and hydrogen as a cogeneration system. For hydrogen production, the cogeneration system is fitted with components for either electrolysis or thermochemical processes. Water electrolysis operates at relatively low temperatures of around 80 deg. C to 120 deg. C, while steam electrolysis operates at much higher temperatures and is therefore more efficient. Steam electrolysis could be ideal for integration with advanced high temperature nuclear power plants, as the process requires heat input at around 700 deg. C to 950 deg. C. Thermochemical processes can produce hydrogen by inducing chemical reactions with specific compounds at high temperatures to split water molecules. Advanced nuclear reactors capable of operating at very high temperatures can also be used to produce heat for these processes. Several countries are now implementing or exploring hydrogen production using nuclear power plants to help decarbonize their energy, industrial and transportation sectors. It is also a way to get more out of a nuclear power plant, which can help to increase its profitability. The IAEA provides support to countries interested in hydrogen production through initiatives including coordinated research projects and technical meetings. It has also developed the Hydrogen Economic Evaluation Program (HEEP), a tool for assessing the economics of large-scale hydrogen production via nuclear energy. The IAEA also released an e-learning course on hydrogen production through nuclear cogeneration in early 2020. Translation of an article published in the IAEA Bulletin, September 2020, Vol. 61-3.
[en] Outline: - The Lead cooled Fast Reactors in GIF: SSTAR(USA) Small-sized, battery type reactor with long core life; BREST-OD-300(Russia) Medium-sized, 'pools-in-loop' type reactor with associated closed fuel cycle facilities; ELFR(Europe) Large-sized, integral type reactor for closing of the fuel cyle. - Activities of the GIF LFR provisional SSC (pSSC). - Status of LFR R&D activities in MoU Countries/Entities: Japan, Russian Federation, Republic of Korea, USA, China and Euratom. - Development of the GIF LFR Safety Design Criteria. Outlook on LFR SDC: Work started during 2014, and the present report is the result of discussions among members of the LFR pSSC, benefiting greatly from review and consultations with the GIF RSWG, ANL, IRSN and other partners of the Euratom collaborative project ARCADIA; LFR SDC Report has been updated following the IAEA SSR 2/1 (rev. 1) as well as the IAEA Safety Glossary (2018); The report endorsed by RSWG in February 2021 and approved by the GIF Experts Group in March 2021; Planned to be followed by reviews by external partners (IAEA, WGSAR); Further steps will include the development of detailed Safety Design Guidelines for selected topics.