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[en] In the context of the health crisis, responses must be found for an economic revival on the short as well as long term, but with a search for the general interest, notably the climatic one. Produced by a professional body of the solar energy sector, this paper proposes there main forms of actions: to immediately free the segment of small solar plants (pricing issues, administrative simplifications), to reduce the constraints of bidding processes (wider location eligibility criteria), and to boost project development cycles (quicker and more simple urban planning processes), and to develop a strong and dynamic solar sector (by supporting companies during the crisis, by implementing a favourable regulatory framework, by defining a new partnership with agriculture, by an industrial revival, by rationalizing connection costs)
[en] As required by the energy transition law for green growth, RTE has prepared and published this Annual Electricity Report to present a general overview of the activities and developments of the French power distribution system during the past year: power consumption (evolution, sectoral distribution, temperature and uses dependence, European comparison); power generation (overall production, production by energy source: nuclear, fossil fuels, hydraulic, wind, solar, renewable thermal, overall renewable sources, CO2 emissions); regional analysis (production/consumption balance, regional consumption, regional production); transportation grid (recent evolutions, new and renewed connections, highlights, RTE's investments, map of the main projects in progress or planned, electricity quality, losses); prices and trades (market price in Europe, balance of trades, Central Western European (CWE) electricity market region, Spain, Italy, Switzerland, UK, evolution of trans-border exchange mechanisms); market mechanisms (Balance Responsible Entities activity, adjustment mechanism, peak load shedding, capacity mechanisms). A glossary is provided in appendix
[en] After having indicated some key data which illustrate the situation and the predicted evolution of fleets of electrical or hybrid vehicles, and of the number of charge points, this study gives an overview of the strategy and evolving role of car manufacturers in the production of electric and hybrid vehicles, of their components, and in the deployment of associated infrastructures. Thus, it notably describes the various ways car manufacturers adopt to intervene in battery manufacturing either by assembling batteries (purchase of cells, assembling units) or by manufacturing batteries (investment, fabrication unit either owned or shared in partnership). It describes how this commitment in battery manufacturing can have impacts on other battery markets (for grid, industry, building or individual housing), and the various possible strategies (to become a battery provider, to develop partnerships, to commercialise battery packs). The next part addresses the development potential related infrastructures and services associated with e-mobility: manufacturing of charging stations, installation of these stations, operation of a charging station network, proposition of mobility services. The last part indicates how some manufacturers are committed in a global strategy and have created subsidies to be present on very different activity segments which may even reach electricity supply.
[fr]Deux tendances lourdes se degagent actuellement: l'e-mobilite decolle enfin et les reseaux electriques recherchent de la flexibilite (notamment pour pallier l'intermittence de certaines energies renouvelables, en fort developpement actuel et futur). Et ces deux tendances creent des opportunites pour les constructeurs automobiles. L'accroissement des ventes de vehicules electriques pose la question du sourcing des batteries, un composant devenu strategique dans la fabrication des vehicules electriques. Achats massifs a plus ou moins long terme aupres des fabricants asiatiques, assemblage en propre, et, de plus en plus, construction de gigafactories, les strategies different. La plupart des constructeurs automobiles securisent leurs approvisionnements en batteries. Ce qui ouvre de nouveaux horizons, a commencer par le stockage stationnaire y compris, d'ailleurs, avec des batteries de 2nde vie. Soutien au reseau electrique (pour ramener la frequence a 50 Hz), flexibilisation des sites industriels ou encore augmentation du taux d'autoconsommation des batiments/maisons dotes de panneaux photovoltaiques: les developpements possibles sont nombreux. Et il en va de meme pour le smart charging avec un interet mutuel pour les conducteurs de vehicules electriques et les gestionnaires de reseau. Ou encore de l'utilisation de la batterie des vehicules electriques, lorsqu'ils sont a l'arret (V2H, V2B, V2G). Les synergies entre l'automobile et l'electricite se renforcent. A tel point que certains constructeurs automobiles ont saute le pas en devenant fournisseur d'electricite. Volkswagen - via sa filiale Elli - en offre un exemple emblematique. Et il pourrait etre suivi par d'autres comme Tesla prochainement au Royaume- Uni. Tandis que d'autres misent plus sur des partenariats avec les energeticiens. Quelle que soit leur forme, les relations entre constructeurs automobiles devraient a l'avenir nettement s'intensifier.
[en] Science provides a clear and objective case that nuclear energy should be the primary replacement for carbon fuels and that “renewables” are not sufficient. A viable energy source needs to be stable and to provide controllable energy, whenever and wherever required. The science of energy is well established, and it places available sources in three clear categories widely separated in potency: pre-industrial, chemical, and nuclear. There have been three corresponding critical turning points in human history: the adoption of pre-industrial sources, the Industrial Revolution, and today, the need to go carbon-free. At this point excluding fossil fuels and reverting to the pre-industrial energy regime is not an option that is compatible with social and economic stability – “renewables are not a viable main primary source of energy. The only option is nuclear with its million-fold superiority in energy density, inherent physical control and natural biological radiation safety: the scientific reasons for each of these are given. However, the public are largely unaware of these. Indeed, in the past the truth has often been misrepresented for political reasons. Today to establish the dominant use of nuclear energy the greatest challenge is educational, to provide a proper positive image of nuclear science in schools and the media, and to overturn much of the precautionary culture of the past 70 years. Global climate change is a far greater threat than nuclear energy ever was. (author)
[en] Against the background of the long-term goals of the "Energiewende" and the German ratification of the Paris climate protection agreement, both the substitution of fossil fuels like natural gas by renewable energies as well as an increase in energy efficiency in the energy system are indispensable. This requires a radical transformation of the energy system, including the gas system, with associated risks for the actors involved. Political and gas industry decision makers therefore need information on the expected future demand for gas in the German energy mix to plan adequately the expansion of the capital-intensive gas transport infrastructure. These investments often have payback periods of up to several decades. In practice, expansion planning today is carried out regularly with special consideration of import dependency and supply security in network development plans of the responsible transmission system operators. The assumed development of gas demand in the 2016 network development plan, however, does not take into account the objectives of energy system transformation. This thesis develops a methodology to include the “Energiewende” objectives defined well beyond these ten years by 2050 in an assessment of the German gas transport system. Based on a detailed analysis of the current situation of the gas transport system, a scenario analysis is carried out in order to obtain plausible gas demand developments by 2050. From these, relevant grid utilization cases for the gas transport network are derived and investigated using the highly flexible GASOPT load flow model developed within the framework of this work. The suitability of GASOPT for the load flow calculation is demonstrated qualitatively by a back testing calculation of the peak load situation 2015 and quantitatively by a subsequent verification. The results of this thesis show that the gas transport network is only slightly utilized in the long term if the goals of the “Energiewende” are achieved due to a reduction in demand of more than 50 %. The compensation of several failing import routes, e.g. in Eastern Europe or even completely depleted natural gas storage facilities with simultaneous full load operation of gas-fired power plants is technically possible. The full substitution of fossil natural gas by methane produced climate-neutrally using "power-to-gas" is also manageable from the grid side. The long-term economic efficiency of grid sections with low capacity utilization and their rededication to alternative energy sources such as hydrogen can be examined in view of the significant reduction in gas transport demand. Furthermore, the analysis of consequences for the actors involved in the gas transport system shows that the business model of operators of large underground storage facilities in particular will be endangered, as import capacities exceed the required gas withdrawals in the future.
[en] We provide results for the spectrum of scalar and pseudoscalar glueballs in pure Yang–Mills theory using a parameter-free fully self-contained truncation of Dyson–Schwinger and Bethe–Salpeter equations. The only input, the scale, is fixed by comparison with lattice calculations. We obtain ground state masses of 1.9 GeV and 2.6 GeV for the scalar and pseudoscalar glueballs, respectively, and 2.6 GeV and 3.9 GeV for the corresponding first excited states. This is in very good quantitative agreement with available lattice results. Furthermore, we predict masses for the second excited states at 3.7 GeV and 4.3 GeV. The quality of the results hinges crucially on the self-consistency of the employed input. The masses are independent of a specific choice for the infrared behavior of the ghost propagator providing further evidence that this only reflects a nonperturbative gauge completion.
[en] After having detailed the reality of intermittency of wind and solar energy, and having shown which production means, mainly fossil, were compensating their production lacks, the author outlines that the decision by Germany to phase out nuclear (the core decision in the Energiewende) and the strong development of electric renewable energies is actually an energy turnaround. He also highlights that ecological concerns were in fact totally absent, and that the exploitation of mining resources of this country was the background of its geo-strategy. He wanders why France with its lack of mining resources and the possession of 93 pc de-carbonised electric power, decided to imitate Germany. The author shows that the imperfect compensation has consequences on gross prices. Thus, he states that the risk of a black-out is high, and notices that there is no technically possible nor socially acceptable projects
[en] The bureaucratic organization of the State follows a logic of sectorial fragmentation and, like in the Academy, knowledge tends to be built according to disciplinary frames. Specialization helps to address some challenges better, but tends to be limited when dealing with complex problems that require greater integration. Sectorial public policies sometimes result in zero-sum games when they interact with other intervention axes. This study explores the idea of integrating social, economic and environmental policies towards energy, with focus on the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil. Based on the Nexus approach, which integrates water, energy and food security, and sees water as a natural resource common to these three aspects, this study proposes the production of photovoltaic energy by family farmers as a way to promote positive synergies of social, environmental and economic policies. (author)
[en] At the Paris Conference on Climate Change, the world community set itself the most important task – to prevent the annual increase in average air temperature by more than 1.5 ºC since otherwise our planet will be on the verge of a global catastrophe. The key mechanism for accomplishing this task is the development of environmentally friendly energy sources, to which the UN includes both the renewable energy sources, such as wind or sunlight, and nuclear energy. In view of this, the international experts stress that nuclear power should play a major role in solving climate problems and protecting the environment.