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[en] The concepts of the cities we know nowadays, and which we are accustomed to, change at a very rapid pace. The philosophy of their design is also changing. It will base on new standards, entering a completely different, futuristic dimension. This stage is related to changes in the perception of space, location and lack of belonging to definite, national or cultural structures. Cities of the future are cities primarily intelligent, zero-energetic, zero-waste, environmentally sustainable, self-sufficient in terms of both organic food production and symbiosis between the environment and industry. New cities will be able to have new organisational structures—either city states, or, apolitical, jigsaw-like structures that can change their position—like in the case of the city of Artisanopolis, designed as a floating city, close to the land, reminiscent of the legendary Atlantis. This paper is focused on the main issues connected with problems of the contemporary city planning. The purpose of the research was to identify existing technological solutions, whose aim is to use solar energy and urban greenery. The studies were based on literature related to future city development issues and futuristic projects of the architects and city planners. In the paper, the following issues have been verified: futuristic cities and districts, and original bionic buildings, both residential and industrial. The results of the analysis have been presented in a tabular form.
[en] Under the current macro-economic trends, the so far abundant support system for renewables (mainly in the form of feed-in-tariffs and quota systems) has been drastically modified. In many EU countries, companies are trying to find alternative ways to secure financing for their renewable energy projects. Therefore, new ways of attracting private capital for the realisation of green energy goals have to replace the old schemes. Some new forms of financing are coming together with the EU Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 (project guarantees, packaging of small project for micro-financing schemes at the regional level, preferential loan instead of subsidies etc.). Advanced financial structures are likely to play an increasingly important role in the allocation of risk and reward among different investor classes. The finance and investment gap needs to be filled by the private sector. The challenge is to identify the appropriate policy options and financial tools to attract and scale-up private investments. There are, however, already innovative and promising business and financial models to promote the deployment of RES in the EU. The aim of the EurObserv'ER case studies is to find such examples and describe them so as to put forward the best practices and the replicability of the future promising financing mechanisms. EurObserv'ER will aim at choosing only the most promising ones and try to describe them in order to promote replicability in other geographical areas. The selection criteria for the choice of case studies should ensure (i) diversity across regions and RES, (ii) diversity across finance instruments/mechanisms, (iii) success of approach and its potential to be replicated, (iv) and a wide range of the 'size' of actors/ investors and the resulting RES investments (capacity). The current selection also takes into account the fact that there were already some case studies published in 2014, 2015, 2018 and 2019. These are also available for download on the project web site: www.eurobserv-er.org
[en] The two-temperature structure of gas filtration combustion in an inert porous medium has been considered. The final interphase heat transfer, a strong temperature dependence of reaction rate have been assumed, the diffusion and pressure gradient in the gas phase have been neglected. A connection between the concentration and the temperature gradient of the second phase has been defined. (author)
[en] Factors affecting Nuclear adoption: 1. Social Acceptance / Risk perception; 2. “Decision to Commissioning” time; 3. Implementation Risk; 4. Load Following capabilities 5.; Decentralization
[en] The large-scale replacement of synchronous generation by non-synchronous PV and wind feed-in will result in reduced rotational inertia in future power systems. Low-inertia operation is charachterised by increased rate-of-change-of-frequency and greater frequency deviations during power imbalance events. In the context of frequency stability, such behaviour is potentially problematic. Using detailed stationary and dynamic models, the degree to which reduced rotational inertia will influence the frequency stability in the future Continental Europe power system is investigated in the presented dissertation.
[en] In this paper we provide a detailed analysis of heat generation in a solid-state laser medium. The fractional thermal loadings are different for different physical processes in a laser medium, including the fluorescence process, stimulated emission, energy transfer up-conversion and excited-state absorption. Applying this theoretical analysis in a diode-end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser at 1342 nm, and using a simple and efficient method to measure the thermal loading of the solid-state laser medium presented, the experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretically calculated results. (paper)
[en] This document, produced at the request of the Geothermal Technical Committee, takes up an analysis of the reciprocal influences of realized and potential geothermal operations made at and near Sarcelles, north of Paris. The results of the simulation calculations show that the approach (which can be qualified as pessimistic) provides a first layout diagram that should be adjusted during the chronological drilling sequence. It is in fact not certain at all that the various production levels identified on the first borehole, of 'metric' thickness, are continuous over the entire extent of the area studied. It is therefore absolutely necessary to provide for successive revisions of the model (which may lead to corrective measures on the initial layout) as the boreholes are carried out. Up to eight borehole 'doublets' are considered over a period of 5 years
[fr]Ce document analyse les influences reciproques des exploitations geothermiques realisees et potentielles sur les communes de Garges-Les-Gonesse, Gonesse, Villiers-le-Bel et Sarcelles. Compte tenu de la connaissance actuelle des parametres du reservoir, les resultats des calculs de simulation n'appellent pas de commentaires particuliers. L'approche effectuee peut etre qualifiee de pessimiste et fournir un premier schema d'implantation qu'il conviendra d'ajuster au cours de la sequence chronologique de forage. Il n'est en effet pas certain, a priori, que les differents niveaux producteurs identifies sur le premier forage, et d'epaisseur sensiblement metrique, soient continus sur toute l'etendue du domaine etudie. Il est donc absolument necessaire de prevoir des revisions successives du modele (pouvant entrainer des correctifs sur le schema d'implantation initial) au fur et a mesure de la realisation des forages. Il semble tres optimiste d'envisager cinq doublets a Sarcelles, compte tenu de l'avis des services techniques de la ville, de la presence d'une usine d'incineration, du nombre et de la localisation des batiments a raccorder. En tout etat de cause, si cinq doublets etaient prevus a Sarcelles, la configuration proposee dans le rapport est admissible. Il est particulierement important de savoir des la realisation du 1er doublet si l'operation globale comportera trois, quatre ou cinq doublets, ainsi que leur date approximative de realisation. Le modele analyse prend en compte des doublets realises en meme temps ou presque. Il est evident qu'un planning etendu sur cinq ans ou plus entrainerait des modifications non negligeables. L'option huit doublets, beaucoup plus realiste a notre avis, permet la realisation des seize forages sans qu'un probleme majeur d'interaction ne soit previsible. L'un des problemes souleves par cette etude est la sophistication des modeles mathematiques utilises. En effet, jusqu'a present, les modelisations se font avec des parametres constants, il est par exemple impossible (ou tres long) de prendre en compte un aquifere a hauteur productrice variable, ou bien echelonner la mise en service des operations, ou de faire varier le debit reinjecte le long de la saison de chauffe, etc. L'Institut de Recherches Geothermiques est en train de mettre au point un modele mathematique qui tiendra compte des limitations des modeles actuellement utilises. Il sera certainement tres utile, des que ce programme sera operationnel, de comparer les resultats et ainsi d'affiner les previsions
[en] There exists a variety of nuclear structure phenomena within the chain of Zr isotopes in the low-excitation regime. While the ground state of 94Zr is spherical in nature, the occurrence of low-lying collective structure has also been observed. The excitation of protons across the Z = 40 sub-shell closure appears to playa dominant role for this collective structure in 94Zr. With the goal of looking for possible competition between proton and neutron excitations in 94Zr, an experiment was carried out at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive beam facility. The low-lying states of 94Zr were populated from the β- decay of 94Y. The 8π spectrometer was composed of 20 Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors; details of the experimental setup can be found in earlier literature. Combining the singles and coincidence data, a comprehensive level scheme of 94Zr has been constructed up to Ex ∼ 4.8 MeV, which is very close to the Qβ- value 4.918 MeV. With the revised level lifetimes and the newly found decay branches from the present investigation, the levels could be categorized in terms of proton and neutron excitations. Detailed results obtained from the analysis of the acquired data will be presented
[en] After some brief recalls of definitions (surface and deep geothermal energy), indications of some operational characteristics (high and low energy geothermal, heat pumps), indications of the various fields of application of these different approaches and techniques, indications of some key data (turnover, production, potential), this publication proposes an overview of the various assets of this sector: a local, available, performing, and clean energy, a structured sector. It outlines the essential role of geothermal energy in reaching the objectives of the law on energy transition, but also that the development rate is still insufficient to reach the objectives defined for 2023. Then, measures and actions are proposed to free the whole potential of the geothermal energy sectors.
[en] Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a simple, effective, sustainable and low cost treatment that uses solar radiation as a biocide to improve the microbiological quality of drinking water. It is based on the exposure of water in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles to the sunlight during at least 6 h (SODIS Foundation). Several factors influence the SODIS efficacy such as temperature, radiation intensity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and salts, organic matter, material and shape of the container and the exposure time (Nelson et al., 2018). This method is one of the World Health Organization recommended treatments of drinking water at household level in developing countries. Cryptosporidium is a genus of emerging waterborne protozoan parasites, which infectious form (the oocyst) is highly resistant to common water disinfectants such as chlorine and ozone (Robertson 2015). For this reason, this parasite causes important outbreaks in developed countries and it is a significant endemic factor in developing countries, being responsible for approximately 202,000 deaths in children under the age of 2 (Sow et al., 2016). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the individual effects of temperature and radiation intensity in the inactivation of Cryptosporidium by SODIS method.