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[en] This report, commissioned in 1989, first discusses the impact of the greenhouse effect on climate change and the consequences for our society. It defines the greenhouse effect (the certainty of an increase of greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere, model predictions, already visible effects of climate change), discusses its various consequences and that of climate change on forest, on agriculture, on water resources, on winter sports resorts, on sea fishing, on sea level, and briefly discusses the answer to this type of risk. The next part proposes an analysis of current contributions to the greenhouse effect in the world (emissions, contributions due to fossil energy, CFC contribution) and in France (contributions of the production and use of fossil energy, of agriculture, of waste processing, of CFC). The next part addresses possibilities of preventive actions to reduce emissions related to agricultural activities, of actions in the forestry and wood sector, of possibilities of reduction of emissions related to the use of fossil energy, to wastes, to CFC and their substitutes, to tropical forests and agriculture. It discusses how to stimulate the implementation of actions of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through economic measures (taxes, political measures, support to R and D). The last parts propose an overview of studies and researches on mechanisms and effects of climate change, and of the actions to be undertaken by public agencies and in different sectors. Numerous appendices are provided.