Results 1 - 10 of 2451
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[en] The ground-state properties of superheavy nuclei are investigated within various parametrisations of relativistic and nonrelativistic nuclear mean-field models. The heaviest known even-even nuclei starting with Z=98 are used as a benchmark to estimate the predictive power of the models and forces. From that starting point, deformed doubly magic nuclei are searched in the region 100≤Z≤130 and 142≤N≤190. (orig.)
[en] Atomic masses of various radionuclides around the Z=82 shell closure were determined with the ISOLTRAP mass spectrometer. This particular mass region is characterized by strong nuclear structure effects, like, e.g., shape coexistence. In this contribution results derived from mass spectrometry and laser spectroscopy are examined for a possible correlation between mass values and nuclear charge radii. (orig.)
[en] Constrained mean-field calculations, based on the Gogny-D1M energy density functional, have been carried out to describe fission in the isotopes "2"5"0"-"2"6"0No. The even-even isotopes have been considered within the standard Hartree-Fock-Bogoliobov (HFB) framework while for the odd-mass ones the Equal Filling Approximation (HFB-EFA) has been employed. Ground state quantum numbers and deformations, pairing energies, one-neutron separation energies, inner and outer barrier heights as well as fission isomer excitation energies are given. Fission paths, collective masses and zero-point quantum vibrational and rotational corrections are used to compute the systematic of the spontaneous fission half-lives t_S_F both for even-even and odd-mass nuclei. Though there exists a strong variance of the predicted fission rates with respect to the details involved in their computation, it is shown that both the specialization energy and the pairing quenching effects, taken into account within the self-consistent HFB-EFA blocking procedure, lead to larger t_S_F values in odd-mass nuclei as compared with their even-even neighbors. Alpha decay lifetimes have also been computed using a parametrization of the Viola-Seaborg formula. The high quality of the Gogny-D1M functional regarding nuclear masses leads to a very good reproduction of Q_α values and consequently of lifetimes. (orig.)
[en] In the present work, the isovector dipole responses, both in the resonance region and in the low-energy sector, are investigated using the microscopic nuclear Energy Density Functionals (EDFs). The self-consistent QRPA model based on Skyrme Hartree Fock BCS approach is applied to study the evolution of the isovector dipole strength by increasing neutron number and temperature. First, the isovector dipole strength and excitation energies are investigated for the Ni isotopic chain at zero temperature. The evolution of the low-energy dipole strength is studied as a function of the neutron number. In the second part, the temperature dependence of the isovector dipole excitations is studied using the self-consistent finite temperature QRPA, below and above the critical temperatures. It is shown that new excited states become possible due to the thermally occupied states above the Fermi level, and opening of the new excitations channels. In addition, temperature leads to fragmentation of the low-energy strength around the neutron separation energies, and between 9 and 12 MeV. We find that the cumulative sum of the strength below E≤12 MeV decreases in open-shell nuclei due to the vanishing of the pairing correlations as temperature increases up to T=1 MeV. The analysis of the transition densities in the low-energy region shows that the proton and neutron transition densities display a mixed pattern: both isoscalar and isovector motion of protons and neutrons are obtained inside nuclei, while the neutron transition density is dominant at the surface region.
[en] Detailed fits to energies and electromagnetic transition rates for isotopic chains in the rare-earth region were performed using a simple IBA-1 Hamiltonian. The resulting parameters were then used to calculate two-neutron separation energies, isomer and isotope shifts. Comparison of the isotope shift behavior with other observables in this mass region suggests that the isotope shift could provide an indication for a first-order phase transition. (orig.)
[en] The ground-state properties of Sn,Te,Xe, and Ba isotopes have been systematically investigated in the framework of the deformed relativistic mean-field theory with the new parameter set FSUGold. The results show that FSUGold is as successful as NL3* in reproducing the ground-state binding energies of the nuclei. The calculated two-neutron separation energies, quadrupole deformations, and root-mean-square (rms) charge radii are in good agreement with the experimental data. The parameter set FSUGold can successfully describe the shell effect of the neutron magic number N=82. Detailed discussions on the binding energies, two-neutron separation energies, quadrupole deformations, rms charge radii and ''binding energies'' of the last neutrons are given. (orig.)
[en] Recent mass measurements show a substantial weakening of the binding-energy difference δ2p(Z, N) = E(Z - 2, N) - 2E(Z, N) + E(Z + 2, N) in the neutron-deficient Pb isotopes. As δ2p is often attributed to the size of the proton magic gap, it might be speculated that reduction in δ2p is related to a weakening of the spherical Z = 82 shell. We demonstrate that the observed trend is described quantitatively by self-consistent mean-field models in terms of deformed ground states of Hg and Po isotopes. (orig.)
[en] In this paper, we analyze the structural properties of Z = 132 and Z = 138 superheavy nuclei within the ambit of axially deformed relativistic mean-field framework with NL3* parametrization and calculate the total binding energies, radii, quadrupole deformation parameter, separation energies, density distributions. We also investigate the phenomenon of shape coexistence by performing the calculations for prolate, oblate and spherical configurations. For clear presentation of nucleon distributions, the two-dimensional contour representation of individual nucleon density and total matter density has been made. Further, a competition between possible decay modes such as α-decay, β-decay and spontaneous fission of the isotopic chain of superheavy nuclei with Z = 132 within the range 312 ≤ A ≤ 392 and 318 ≤ A ≤ 398 for Z = 138 is systematically analyzed within self-consistent relativistic mean-field model. From our analysis, we inferred that the α-decay and spontaneous fission are the principal modes of decay in majority of the isotopes of superheavy nuclei under investigation apart from β-decay as dominant mode of decay in "3"1"8"-"3"2"2138 isotopes. (orig.)
[en] We calculate, for the first time, the state-dependent pairing gap of a finite nucleus (120Sn) diagonalizing the bare nucleon-nucleon potential (Argonne v14) in a Hartree-Fock basis (with effective k-mass mk ∼0.7 m), within the framework of the generalized Bogoliubov-Valatin approximation including scattering states up to 800 MeV above the Fermi energy to achieve convergence. The resulting gap accounts for about half of the experimental gap. The combined effect of the bare nucleon-nucleon potential and of the induced pairing interaction arising from the exchange of low-lying surface vibrations between nucleons moving in time-reversal states close to the Fermi energy accounts for the experimental gap. (orig.)
[en] The constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximation, based on the recent parametrization D1M* of the Gogny energy density functional, is used to describe fission in 435 superheavy nuclei. The Gogny-D1M* parametrization is benchmarked against available experimental data on inner and second barrier heights, excitation energies of the fission isomers and half-lives in a selected set of Pu, Cm, Cf, Fm, No, Rf, Sg, Hs and Fl nuclei. Results are also compared with those obtained with the Gogny-D1M energy density functional. A detailed study of the minimal energy fission paths is carried out for isotopic chains with atomic numbers 100 ≤Z≤ 126 including very neutron-rich sectors up to around 4 MeV from the two-neutron driplines. Single-particle energies, ground state deformations, pairing correlations, two-nucleon separation energies and barrier heights are also discussed. In addition to fission paths, the constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov framework provides collective masses and zero-point quantum rotational and vibrational energies. Those quantities are building blocks within the Wentzel-Kramer-Brillouin formalism employed to evaluate the systematic of the spontaneous fission half-lives tSF. The competition between spontaneous fission and -decay is studied, through the computation of the -decay half-lives t using a parametrization of the Viola-Seaborg formula. From the comparison with the available experimental data and the results obtained with other theoretical approaches, it is concluded that D1M* represents a reasonable starting point to describe fission in heavy and superheavy nuclei.