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[en] It is universally apparent that environmental and energy transition must evolve in order to meet the needs of a growing world population while still heeding environmental constraints. This change over time will be based on a sustainable energy mix, and consequently the use of renewable energy sources is likely to intensify over the coming decades in respond to rising demand for electricity worldwide. The International Energy Agency (IEA) predicts that 40% of electricity will come from renewable sources by 2050. Some of these renewable forms of energy generate power on an irregular and intermittent basis, and energy storage offers one solution for deploying these intermittent energy sources more widely as part of an efficient smart grid. (authors)
[en] Since the early 1970's, the policies of energy diversification that have been implemented in the industrialized countries and in many developing countries have enabled natural gas to regularly increase its role in the world energy balance. Thus, during the past twenty years, natural gas recorded the highest growth rate among fossil fuels, and its share in the energy market has gradually risen from 18.9 % in 1975 to 23.1 % in 1995. (author)
[en] The global photovoltaic market has continued expanding despite the economic and financial crisis. Capacity in excess of 29000 MWp was connected in 2011 in the world, which is roughly 12200 MWp more than in 2010. The European Union (E.U.) is still the main hive of installation activity. It added more than 21500 additional MWp of capacity to the grid las year, and the 4 most important contributors to this added capacity are Italy with 9280 MWp, Germany with 7505 MWp, France with 1634 MWp and United Kingdom with 937 MWp. Outside the E.U., the surging Chinese, American and Japanese markets vouch for the enormous growth potential offered by solar power worldwide. When considering the photovoltaic power per inhabitant for each E.U. member in 2011, Germany ranks first with 304 Wp/inhabitant, Italy second with 210 Wp/inhabitant, Czech Republic third with 186 Wp/inhabitant, Belgium fourth with 165 Wp/inhabitant, the other countries are below 100 Wp/inhabitant. The sharp drop in the price of photovoltaic modules has led to a new rush on installations and most European countries reviewed their incentive system during first half 2012 in order to regain very firm control of the market. The price war started by Chinese and Taiwanese manufacturers may have delighted developers and investors, but it has sent the global photovoltaic industry into a self-destructive spiral. (A.C.)
[en] The DERBI (Development of Renewable Energies in Building and Industry) competitiveness cluster and the CNRS via the Federation for Research on Solar Energy (FedEsol) have joined forces once again to co-host 'The 2015 International Conference DERBI 2016' and 'The 2015 JNES Congress' from 29-30 June on the University Campus in Perpignan. The combination of these two events provides the national community working in the field of the use and the rational exploitation of solar energy with a forum for information and exchange across the entire range of themes within the industry, thus facilitating intensive interaction between the scientific and industrial communities. This year will see a particular focus on the theme of energy storage. The Production-Consumption adequacy, in combination with today's life styles in our societies, requires the massive development of auxiliary energy storage systems adapted to local resources and uses. These systems must warrant the networks stability and peaks smoothing in a context of continuous implementation of renewable energies, the operation of isolated sites, and finally, the de-compartmentalisation of energy vectors (electricity, gas, heat..). Scientific issues, technological challenges and economic models cover various domains such as: materials, components, systems, solar and renewable resource knowledge, optimized storage control, distributed or centralized storage through network connection and/or conversion into other energy vectors, city planning and architectures, and mobilities planning. The 3 days are made up of round tables, discussion sessions, posters and thematic workshops, enabling attendees to play an active role and learn about the latest innovations, new technologies and operational solutions. This document brings together 57 available abstracts of presentations given at the conferences
[en] Based on experience gathered during the pilot actions in the cities of Lisbon, Lyon, Malmoe, Munich, Paris and Vitoria-Gasteiz, these guidelines were developed to support the adaptation of urban planning procedures with the aim of boosting solar energy in cities or towns. POLIS - identification and mobilisation of solar potentials via local strategies was a European project co-funded by the Intelligent Energy - Europe (IEE) programme aiming at the implementation of strategic urban planning and local policy measures to activate the solar ability of urban structures in European cities. The POLIS partners have identified a total of ten guidelines necessary to implement a coherent planning policy in favour of solar energy. They address how to identify and mobilise the solar potential, optimise solar urban planning processes, and adapt local policies and legislation. Each of the ten guidelines (covering the entire process from data collection to policy development and legislation), solar urban planning tools and practices, and participation of citizens will help replicate these successful experiences in other cities, benefiting from the lessons learned in practice. All the guidelines are presented in a standard format. They: provide a short description of the background and general approach, propose concrete methods and instruments, offer tips on necessary local conditions and which partners to involve, highlight financial aspects, analyse success factors as well as risks and barriers, specify necessary input, results and outcomes, describe - wherever possible - the impact on greenhouse gas emissions, and refer to lessons learned during the POLIS pilot actions. In order to know more about the legal and technical framework of each country of city partner, country conditions sheet are attached in appendix for France, Germany, Portugal and Spain
[en] POLIS is an European cooperation project that focuses on implementing strategic town planning and local policy measures to utilize the solar energy capability of structures in European cities. Only a strategic approach by the municipality can enhance the expanding integration of small-scale, decentralized energy applications into the built environment. The aim of the project is to identify and evaluate current practices in solar urban planning, and unite the key responsible parties of this process to create a more cohesive planning and legislation practice for solar developments. The physical structure of a building and its position within the urban pattern is clearly integral to its solar energy capabilities. Availability and orientation of external surface area is a crucial factor in the design of active solar systems and also important for the reception of passive solar energy. More than any other renewable energy integrated solar technologies rely on the qualification of the built environment. To ensure the viability of solar energy technologies in new structures in the urban environment, certain requirements need to be included in development planning and building legislation. Several instruments are available to promote solar energy such as municipal agreements or private law commitments. Existing buildings should also be guaranteed consideration for the installation of solar energy systems. A comprehensive knowledge of the style and structure of these buildings is essential to establish strategic planning to unlock their solar potential. Through the cooperation of those cities that are currently engaged in solar urban planning, the mobilization of solar urban potential can be promoted at a local level. Since municipalities are the key actors in the process of urban planning and local initiatives it is important that the planning departments of towns and cities be intrinsically involved in the POLIS project. This document is a compilation of several best practices and success cases of projects and ideas implemented in the participating countries. The cases are presented in the most diverse areas, from targets definition, to legal framework and policies, mobilization of solar potential and active implementation of urban planning measures involving the relevant stakeholders through the all process
[en] In a study on vigilance in the supply chains of minerals used in the energy transition, Sherpa highlights the shortcomings of the measures presented in the vigilance plans of nine French companies, more than three years after the adoption of the Duty of Vigilance Law. Fighting global warming requires a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions to reach the climate targets set out in the Paris agreement. However, the current implementation of the energy transition, through the development of electric mobility or the deployment of renewable energies, requires increasing supplies of certain minerals used to produce batteries or solar panels. The World Bank has identified at least 17 minerals essential for these technologies, such as lithium, cobalt, and neodymium. Yet the extraction and supply of these minerals can lead to environmental and human rights adverse impacts. The Business and Human Rights Resource Centre has documented more than 160 cases of human rights and environmental allegations for the 37 largest companies involved in the extraction and use of minerals crucial in the transition to low-carbon technologies. Sherpa sought to verify whether the vigilance plans published by nine French companies subject to the Duty of Vigilance Law contain reasonable and adequate vigilance measures to identify such risks and prevent such impacts. In particular, our research shows that the content of the vigilance plans analyzed is insufficient, as the risks associated with these minerals rarely appear in these plans, and the listed measures are often imprecise and detached from the companies' activities. Companies often limit themselves to presenting tools that they were already using before the law existed, such as audits or certifications, but which in practice do not make it possible to avoid damage linked to the use of these minerals.
[en] As the global electricity systems are shaped by decentralisation, digitalisation and decarbonization, the World Energy Council's Innovation Insights Briefs explore the new frontiers in energy transitions and the challenges of keeping pace with fast moving developments. We use leadership interviews to map the state of play and case studies across the whole energy landscape and build a broader and deeper picture of new developments within and beyond the new energy technology value chain and business ecosystem. The topic of this briefing is energy storage. We interviewed energy leaders from 17 countries, exploring recent progress in terms of technology, business models and enabling policies. We showcase these in 10 case studies. While the brief addresses energy storage as a whole, most insights are focused on electrical storage. Our research highlighted that today's mainstream storage technologies are unlikely to be sufficient to meet future flexibility requirements resulting from further decentralisation and decarbonization efforts. Furthermore, a restricted focus on lithium-ion batteries is putting the development of more cost-effective alternative technologies at risk. A detailed list of the interviews with innovators, energy users and producers can be found at the end of this brief. Annex 4 provides a list of acronyms and abreviations. With major decarbonizing efforts to remove thermal electric power generation and scale up renewable energies, the widespread adoption of energy storage continues to be described as the key game changer for electricity systems. Affordable storage systems are a critical missing link between intermittent renewable power and 24/7 reliability net-zero carbon scenario. Beyond solving this salient challenge, energy storage is being increasingly considered to meet other needs such as relieving congestion or smoothing out the variations in power that occur independently of renewable-energy generation. However, whilst there is plenty of visionary thinking, recent progress has focused on short-duration and battery-based energy storage for efficiency gains and ancillary services; there is limited progress in developing daily, weekly and even seasonal cost-effective solutions which are indispensable for a global reliance on intermittent renewable energy sources. The synthesis of thought leadership interviews and case studies with 37 companies and organizations from 17 countries helped derive the following key takeaways and also provide the impetus to the solution steps that we discuss in detail later in this brief: 1 - Shared road-maps: Energy storage is a well-researched flexibility solution. However, while the benefits of energy storage are clear to the energy community, there has been limited bridge-building with policy-makers and regulators to explore the behavioural and policy changes necessary to encourage implementation. 2 - Market design - Access and stacking: Market access and the ability to stack different services simultaneously will enable cost-effective deployment of energy storage, regardless of the technology. 3 - More than batteries: Energy storage is too often reduced to battery technologies. Future-proofing our energy systems means considering alternative solutions and ensuring technologies have equal market opportunities. Demonstration projects of such technologies are necessary to disprove bias towards specific technologies. 4 - Sector coupling: Energy storage presents a sector coupling opportunity between hard-to-abate sectors, such as mobility and industry and clean electricity. Different vectors of energy can be used, including heat, electricity and hydrogen. 5 - Investment: Relying on investments by adjacent sectors such as the automotive sector is not enough. The energy sector must adopt more aggressively technologies aligned with the end-goal: affordable clean energy for all.
[fr]L'adoption a grande echelle du stockage de l'energie est consideree comme un changement de paradigme majeur pour le systeme energetique. Le developpement d'une technologie de stockage accessible aux consommateurs constitue le chainon manquant pour rendre fiables les energies renouvelables variables. En depit de ce defi technique, le stockage de l'energie peut remplir un role au-dela des energies renouvelables, notamment dans le controle des congestions et les variations de puissance du reseau. Malgre ces perspectives encourageantes, les progres autour du stockage sont restes centres sur les services secondaires et les gains d'efficacite acquis par le stockage a court terme. En revanche, tres peu de progres a ete fait vers les solutions diurnes, hebdomadaires ou saisonnieres rentables, qui sont necessaires a la fiabilite des sources d'energies renouvelables. Conclusions principales: 1 - Feuille de route partagee: le stockage d'energie est une solution de flexibilite reconnue. Cependant, il existe tres peu de visions communes entre legislateurs et experts, bien que tous reconnaissent le potentiel du stockage. 2 - Structure du marche: obtenir un deploiement rentable du stockage se fera grace a un acces equitable au marche et un cumul de differents services, quelle que soit la technologie utilisee. 3 - Au-dela des batteries: le stockage energetique est trop souvent reduit aux batteries. Un systeme energetique a l'epreuve du temps doit s'appuyer sur des solutions diverses, encouragees par un acces equitable aux opportunites sur le marche. 4 - Couplage sectoriel: le stockage energetique represente une veritable opportunite de couplage entre les secteurs difficiles a decarboner et les energies renouvelables. Differents vecteurs d'energie peuvent etre utilises, y compris la chaleur, l'electricite et l'hydrogene. 5 - Investissements: il faut diversifier les investissements au-dela des secteurs adjacents, tel que le secteur automobile. Le secteur energetique doit adopter de maniere plus agressive les technologies alignees avec leur finalite: de l'energie propre pour tous.
[en] The winter of 2011 was exceptionally mild, even in Northern Europe, with unusually warm temperatures. As a result the demand for firewood and solid biomass fuel was low. The European Union's primary energy production from solid biomass contracted by 2.9% slipping to 78.8 Mtoe. The first 4 countries are Germany (11.690 Mtoe), France (9.223 Mtoe), Sweden (8.165 Mtoe) and Finland (7.476 Mtoe) and when the production is relative to the population the first 4 countries become: Finland (1.391 toe/inhab.), Sweden (0.867 toe/inhab.), Latvia (0.784 toe/inhab.) and Estonia (0.644 toe/inhab.). Solid biomass electricity production continued to grow, driven by the additional take-up of biomass co-firing, to reach 72.800 TWh at the end of 2011, it means +2.6% compared to 2010. The energy policy of various states concerning solid biomass is analyzed
[en] A unique international university competition to design and build an energy autonomous, solar house: that was the brief for the Solar Decathlon held in France last July. Diversified and reliable, all forms of solar energy have a key role to play in the energy transition. ADEME has therefore opted actively to support the development of these technical solutions going forward. In December 2011, ADEME, ADEREE (Moroccan agency for the development of renewable energies and energy efficiency) and BMWi (German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology) started up a twinning programme funded by the EU to encourage the development of energy efficiency and renewable energies in Morocco