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[en] Part of the mandate of the IAEA is to provide for the application of its standards of safety for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources, at the request of a State. This can be facilitated, inter alia, by encouraging the exchange of information and training of scientists and experts in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. In this connection, the IAEA developed a standard syllabus for a postgraduate educational course in radiation protection in 1993 and subsequently issued a strategic plan for education and training in radiation and waste safety for the period 2001–2010. The proposed strategy identified the organization of postgraduate educational courses at regional training centres as a key element of a sustainable education and training programme in radiation safety for Member States. In 2002, the standard syllabus of the postgraduate educational course was revised and updated to account for changes to the IAEA safety standards, and the conclusions and recommendations of relevant international organizations and committees in the field of radiation protection and the effects of ionizing radiation. In 2010, building on the success of the 2001–2010 strategy, the IAEA developed the Strategic Approach to Education and Training in Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, 2011–2020, again emphasizing the importance of building long term competence in radiation protection and safety in Member States. That same year, noting that several new and revised IAEA safety standards had been introduced since the standard syllabus was last published in 2002, the Steering Committee on Education and Training in Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety recommended that the standard syllabus again be updated accordingly. The present publication provides the revised standard syllabus for the Postgraduate Educational Course in Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources, updated to reflect the current IAEA safety standards.
[en] The Paks nuclear power plant in Hungary comprises four 440 MWe water cooled, water moderated power reactors that supply about 40% of the electricity to the country. Units 1–4 went into commercial operation between 1983 and 1987. On 10 April 2003, an incident occurred in the course of operations to clean fuel assemblies during a scheduled maintenance shutdown for Unit 2. Thirty fuel assemblies had been removed from the Unit 2 reactor and placed in a fuel cleaning tank approximately 10 m under water in a shaft adjacent to the fuel pool. The external surfaces of the fuel assemblies were being cleaned, using a specially designed chemical cleaning process, to remove depositions of magnetite from the fuel assembly cladding. At 21:53 on 10 April 2003, workers detected an increase in the activity of 85Kr, from a measurement system installed in the cleaning circuit. At about the same time, the instruments measuring the activity concentrations of noble gases in the reactor hall indicated that the ‘emergency level’ had been reached. The timeline of the different events during the incident is shown.