Results 1 - 9 of 9
Results 1 - 9 of 9. Search took: 0.025 seconds
|Sort by: date | relevance|
[en] The CEA (in his five-year setting plan) has objective among others, the realization of the two first french reactors moderated with graphite. The construction of the G-1 reactor in Marcoule, first french plutonic core, is achieved so that it will diverge in the beginning of 1956 and reach its full power in the beginning of the second semester of the same year. In this report we will detail the specificities of the reactor and in particular its cooling and energy recuperation system. The G-1 reactor being essentially intended to allow the french technicians to study the behavior of an energy installation supply taking its heat in a nuclear source as early as possible. (M.B.)
[fr]Le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (dans le cadre du plan quinquennal) a entre autres objectifs, la realisation des deux premiers reacteurs francais moderes au graphite. La construction du reacteur G-1 a Marcoule, premiere pile plutonigene francaise, est realise afin qu'il puisse diverger au debut de 1956 et atteindre sa pleine puissance au debut du second semestre de la meme annee. Dans ce rapport nous detaillerons les specificites du reacteur et en particulier son systeme de refroidissement et de recuperation d'energie. Le reacteur G-1 etant essentielement destine a permettre aux techniciens francais d'etudier le plus tot possible le comportement d'une installation productrice d'energie empruntant sa chaleur a une source nucleaire. (M.B.)
[en] In this article, L. Kowarski, at the time (1952) in charge of the Department of Reactors and Accelerators at the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), reviews the scientific and industrial advances made in the field of production and use of atomic energy (experimental reactors, interest of heavy water reactors, plutonium production, choice of a moderator and a cooling fluid, power generation) and examines the different directions in which the program of atomic works should be pursued in France. L. Kowarski published in 'La Technique Moderne' journal previous articles such as: 'The very high voltages and their application to elements transmutation' (February 15, 1939), and 'Atomic Energy. Present state and application prospects' (February 15, 1947). Reprint of a paper published in 'La Technique Moderne', t. XLIV, no. 5, May 1952.
[fr]Dans le tres bel article ci-dessous, M. Kowarski, actuellement charge au Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique du 'Departement des Piles et Accelerateurs', fait le point des progres scientifiques et industriels realises dans le domaine de la production et de l'utilisation de l'energie atomique, et examine les differentes directions dans lesquelles pourrait etre oriente le programme des travaux atomiques a poursuivre en France. Il n'est pas necessaire de presenter M. Kowarski aux lecteurs de La Technique Moderne. Ils ne manqueront pas de se reporter a ses precedents articles parus dans notre revue, et en particulier a ceux du 15 fevrier 1939: Les tres hautes tensions et leur application a la transmutation des elements, et du 15 fevrier 1947: L'energie atomique. Etat present et perspectives d'application. Reproduction d'un article publie dans 'La Technique Moderne', t. XLIV, no. 5, mai 1952.
[en] The CEA actually constructs the G-2 reactor core working with natural uranium, which will use graphite as moderator, and gas under pressure as cooling fluid. This report presents the specificity of the new reactor: - the different elements of the reactor core, - the control and the security of the reactor, - the renewal of the fuel, - the biologic surrounding wall, - and the cooling circuit. (M.B.)
[fr]le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique construit actuellement la pile G-2 a Uranium naturel, qui utilisera le graphite comme moderateur, et le gaz sous pression comme fluide de refroidissement. Ce rapport presente les specificite du nouveau reacteur: - les differents elements de la pile, - le controle et la securite du reacteur, - le renouvellement du combustible, - l'enceinte biologique, - et le circuit de refroidissement. (M.B.)
[en] After having published during the year 1953 several articles on atomic piles, written by engineers of the CEA, which gave very interesting information on the construction, the operation and the control of the pile, and at a time when all nations are considering the peaceful uses of atomic energy, this series of articles is concluded by a remarkable study of Mr. Kowarski, one of the most well-known specialists, on using atomic piles for the generation of electrical energy; after a review of uranium nuclear properties this paper gives a clear picture of the opportunities that are available today and those that may be considered in the near future: pure fissile matter combustion, pure fissile matter simultaneous combustion and production, power and plutonium production from natural uranium, natural uranium piles that solely produce power. Reprint of a paper published in 'Electricite' journal, Jan 1954, p. 3-8.
[fr]Nous avons eu le plaisir de publier au cours de l'annee 1953 plusieurs articles sur les piles atomiques, rediges par des ingenieurs du Commissariat de l'Energie Atomique, qui ont donne de tres interessants renseignements sur la construction, le fonctionnement et le reglage des piles. A l'heure ou toutes les nations envisagent les utilisations pacifiques de l'energie atomique, nous sommes heureux de conclure cette serie d'articles par une etude remarquable de M. Kowarski, l'un des specialistes les plus connus, sur l'emploi des piles atomiques pour la production de l'energie electrique. Il y fait le point avec precision des possibilites qui s'offrent actuellement a nous et de celles qu'on peut envisager dans un avenir prochain. Reproduction d'un article publie dans 'Electricite', janvier 1954, p. 3-8.
Nuclear energy and its industrial applications. 1 - Atomic piles and radio-isotopes: The French atomic programme; The future of atomic energy; The Nuclear Study Centre of Saclay; Fundamental notions related to nuclear reactors; Neutron spectrometer used in the Saclay pile; Determination of the transport mean free path of thermal neutrons by measuring a complex length of diffusion; Electronic equipment used in the measurement of the diffusion length in graphite; The non destructive materials test using the oscillation method in the Chatillon pile; An analogue harmonic analyser; Recent progress in reactor control; Analogue calculators pile simulators; The preparation of artificial radio-elements; Problems faced in the prospecting of radioactive ores and used equipment; Radioactive aerosols and gases in the atomic industry; A fixed health monitoring installation at the Laboratoire de Haute Activite of Saclay
[en] This publication gathers several articles which address various aspects of atomic piles and radio-isotopes. More particularly, the addressed topics are: the future of atomic energy; a presentation of the Nuclear Study Centre of Saclay; an introduction to nuclear engineering; a study of the interaction of neutrons with various elements as a function of neutron velocity; a determination of the transport mean free path of thermal neutrons by measuring a complex length of diffusion; the electronic equipment used in the measurement of the diffusion length in graphite; the non destructive test of materials using the oscillation method in the Chatillon pile; an analogue harmonic analyser; recent progress in reactor control; analogue calculators pile simulators; the preparation of artificial radio-elements; the preparation of artificial radio-elements; a general review of radioactive survey equipment; radioactive aerosols and gases in the atomic industry; A fixed health monitoring installation at the High Activity Laboratory of Saclay. Reprint of a dossier published in 'L'Onde Electrique', Vol. XXXV, No. 343, October 1955, p. 783-947
[en] Describes the conception and functioning of a new reactor (EL-2) using compressed gas as primary coolant. The aim of the use of compressed gas as primary coolant is to reduce the quantity of heavy water used in the functioning of the reactor. Description of the reactor vessel (dimensions, materials, reflector and protection). Description of the cells and the circulation of the gas within the cells. A complete explanation of the control and regulating of the reaction by the ionization chamber is given. Heavy water is used as modulator: it describes the heavy water system and its recombination system. The fuel slugs are cooled by compressed gas: its system is described as well as the blower and the heat exchanger system. Water is supplied by a cooling tower which means the reactor power is dependant of the atmospheric conditions. Particular attention has been given to the tightness of the different systems used. The relation between neutron flow and the thermal output is discussed: the thermal output can be calculated by measuring the gas flow and its heating or by measuring the neutron flow within the reactor, both methods gives closed results. Reactivity study: determination of the different factors which induce a variation of reactivity. Heat transfer: discussion on the use of different heat transfer systems, determination of the required chemical and physical properties of the primary coolant as well as the discussion of the nuclear and thermal requirements for the choice of it. A comparison between the use of nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas shows an advantage in using nitrogen with the existing knowledge. Reflexion on the relevance of this work and the future perspectives of the use of compressed gas as primary coolant. (M.P.)
[en] By integrating the technical chronology with the philosophies underlying construction of the Saclay reactor, the director of the project paints the best available picture of the French advance towards nuclear power. Reprint of a paper published in Nucleonics, Vol. 12, No. 8, August 1954, p. 8-11.
[en] The author first presents some generalities on the cooling of nuclear reactors, notably in the case of the Saclay pile. He evokes performed calculations, discusses the choice of the cooling fluid. In the next part, he more particularly addresses the case of the cooling circuit of the Saclay reactor: circulation of pressurised nitrogen for the cooling of active bars, blower, control of nitrogen flow rate, personnel safety, heavy water circuit for the cooling of the heavy water vessel. The author then addresses the installation electricity supply: sources, contactors and switches, control console, auxiliary equipment, engines and machines. He describes the operation of electrical installations on main power and in case of emergency-run. Reprint of a paper published in 'L'Onde Electrique' journal, no. 321, dec 1953.
[en] The author reports the use of the Nordheim formula in the case of Zoe (a pile located in Chatillon), while considering the case bars in natural uranium (instead of UO2), and while taking the effect of geometry on photo-neutron production into account. The Nordheim formula is calculated for two different experimental values of the constants of delayed neutrons. The author discusses the difference between the results obtained for reactivity with these new conditions and with the older ones. He reports the calculation of the geometrical factor