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[en] In order to increase energy security, production of renewable energies has been highly promoted by governments around the world in recent years. The typical base of various policy instruments used for this purpose is gross energy output of renewable energy. However, we show that basing policy instruments on gross energy output will result in problems associated with energy waste, economic inefficiency, and negative environmental effects. We recommend using net energy output as the base to apply price or quantity measures because it is net energy output, not gross energy output, which contributes to energy security. The promotion of gross energy output does not guarantee a positive amount of net energy output. By basing policy instruments on net energy output, energy security can be enhanced and the above mentioned problems can be avoided.
[en] The development of microsatellites requires the development of engines to modify their orbit. It is natural to use solar energy to drive such engines. For an unlimited energy source the optimal thruster must use a minimal amount of expendable material to minimize launch costs. This requires the ejected material to have the maximal velocity and, hence, the ejected atoms must be as light as possible and be ejected by as high an energy density source as possible. Such a propulsion can be induced by pulses from an ultra-short laser. The ultra-short laser provides the high-energy concentration and high-ejected velocity. We suggest a microthruster system comprised of an inflatable solar concentrator, a solar panel, and a diode-pumped fiber laser. We will describe the system design and give weight estimates.
[en] In today's electricity generation system, different resources make different contributions to the electricity grid. This fact sheet illustrates the roles of distributed and centralized renewable energy technologies, particularly solar power, and how they will contribute to the future electricity system. The advantages of a diversified mix of power generation systems are highlighted.
[en] Geothermal binary power plants that use low-temperature heat sources have gained increasing interest in the recent years due to political efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the consumption of finite energy resources. The construction of such plants requires large amounts of energy and material. Hence, the question arises if geothermal binary power plants are also environmentally promising from a cradle-to-grave point of view. In this context, a comprehensive Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) on geothermal power production from EGS (enhanced geothermal systems) low-temperature reservoirs is performed. The results of the analysis show that the environmental impacts are very much influenced by the geological conditions that can be obtained at a specific site. At sites with (above-) average geological conditions, geothermal binary power generation can significantly contribute to more sustainable power supply. At sites with less favorable conditions, only certain plant designs can make up for the energy and material input to lock up the geothermal reservoir by the provided energy. The main aspects of environmentally sound plants are enhancement of the reservoir productivity, reliable design of the deep wells and an efficient utilization of the geothermal fluid for net power and district heat production.
[en] This special issue on Solar energy and nano materials for clean energy development is composed of selected, full-length versions of papers presented during the international Solar 09 conference that was held in the fascinating historical city of Luxon. The conference gathered scientists from 26 countries, to discuss outstanding research on a multitude of topics and disciplines. As was pointed out by Professor Paul Barbara from the University of Texas in Austin at the opening session of the conference, this medium-sized conference offered the unique opportunity to learn and exchange scientific issues from distinct disciplines that have one main thing in common, solar photons. This exceptional opportunity to learn about other fields of research not only required particular didactic skills form the speakers, but also demanded special attention and openness from the audience.
[en] A solar-assisted ejector cooling/heating system (SACH) was developed in this study. The SACH combines a pump-less ejector cooling system (ECS) with an inverter-type heat pump (R22) and is able to provide a stable capacity for space cooling. The ECS is driven by solar heat and is used to cool the condenser of the R22 heat pump to increase its COP and reduce the energy consumption of the compressor by regulating the rotational speed of the compressor through a control system. In a complete SACH system test run at outdoor temperature 35 deg. C, indoor temperature 25 deg. C and compressor speed 20-80 Hz, and the ECS operating at generator temperature 90 deg. C and condensing temperature 37 deg. C, the corresponding condensing temperature of the heat pump in the SACH is 24.5-42 deg. C, cooling capacity 1.02-2.44 kW, input power 0.20-0.98 kW, and cooling COPc 5.11-2.50. This indicates that the use of ECS in SACH can effectively reduce the condensing temperature of the heat pump by 12.6-7.3 deg. C and reduce the power consumption by 81.2-34.5%. The SACH can also supply heat from the heat pump. At ambient temperature from 5 deg. C to 35 deg. C, the heating COPh is in the range 2.0-3.3.
[en] Due to rising fuel costs, the substantial price for CO2 emissions and decreasing wind power costs, wind power might become the least expensive source of power for an increasing number of power systems. This poses the questions of how wind power might change optimal investments in other forms of power production and what kind of means could be used to increase power system flexibility in order to incorporate the variable power production from wind power in a cost-effective manner. We have analysed possible effects using an investment model that combines heat and power production and simulates electric vehicles. The model runs in an hourly time scale in order to accommodate the impact of variable power production from wind power. Electric vehicles store electricity for later use and can thus serve to increase the flexibility of the power system. Flexibility can also be upgraded by using heat storages with heat from heat pumps, electric heat boilers and combined heat and power (CHP) plants. Results show that there is great potential for additional power system flexibility in the production and use of heat. (author)
[en] This paper examines the effect of vertical and horizontal shading devices on the quality of daylight in buildings and the associated energy saving. Excessive daylight in architectural spaces contributes negatively to the energy consumption in buildings. Blinds and shading devices are good solutions to attenuate the surplus amount of daylight in spaces. Accordingly, this study evaluates the effect of shading devices on the amount of light flux and the associated solar energy in buildings. It estimates the energy consumption attributed to lighting spaces for three common positions of shading devices. Computer simulation strategy was undertaken to correlate the illuminance level in spaces with room geometry and architectural shading elements. The Holophane model for lighting calculations was used to estimate the average illuminance level on workplane and correlate it with the expected saving energy in buildings. The study concluded that there is an optimal orientation for shading devices that keeps the internal illuminance level within the acceptable range with minimum amount of solar heat gain.
[en] The potential energy curve (PEC) of HI(X1Σ+) molecule is studied using the complete active space self-consistent field method followed by the highly accurate valence internally contracted multireference configuration interaction approach at the correlation-consistent basis sets, aug-cc-pV6Z for H and aug-cc-pV5Z-pp for I atom. Using the PEC of HI(X1Σ+), the spectroscopic parameters of three isotopes, HI(X1Σ+), DI(X1Σ+) and TI(X1Σ+), are determined in the present work. For the HI(X1Σ+), the values of D0, De, Re, ωe, ωeχe, αe and Be are 3.1551 eV, 3.2958 eV, 0.16183 nm, 2290.60 cm−1, 40.0703 cm−1, 0.1699 cm−1 and 6.4373 cm−1, respectively; for the DI (X1Σ+), the values of D0, De, Re, ωe, ωeχe, αe and Be are 3.1965 eV, 3.2967 eV, 0.16183 nm, 1626.8 cm−1, 20.8581 cm−1, 0.0611 cm−1 and 3.2468 cm−1, respectively; for the TI (X1Σ+), the values of D0, De, Re, ωe, ωeχe, αe and Be are of 3.2144 eV, 3.2967 eV, 0.16183 nm, 1334.43 cm−1, 14.0765 cm−1, 0.0338 cm−1 and 2.1850 cm−1, respectively. These results accord well with the available experimental results. With the PEC of HI(X1Σ+) molecule obtained at present, a total of 19 vibrational states are predicted for the HI, 26 for the DI, and 32 for the TI, when the rotational quantum number J is equal to zero (J = 0). For each vibrational state, vibrational level G(v), inertial rotation constant Bv and centrifugal distortion constant Dv are determined when J = 0 for the first time, which are in excellent agreement with the experimental results. (atomic and molecular physics)
[en] This paper proposes a robust controller design of Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) for stabilization of tie-line power oscillation in the interconnected power systems with wind farms. The inverse additive perturbation model is applied to represent system uncertainties such as several generating and loading conditions, variation of system parameters, wind power fluctuations, etc. The structure of active and reactive power controllers of SMES is the first-order lead-lag compensator. To tune the controller parameters, the optimization problem is formulated based on the enhancement of additive stability margin. The genetic algorithm is used to solve the problem and achieve the controller parameters. Simulation studies in the two-area four-machine interconnected power system with wind farms confirm the robustness of the proposed SMES under various operating conditions.