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[en] This report presents a comprehensive review of the 2019 French market of solar thermal individual installations. Content: 1 - 2019 market figures; 2 - Market structuring; 3 - 2019 sales and average prices; 4 - Synthesis.
[en] The objective of this paper is to investigate the adsorption refrigeration cycle as a promising refrigeration technique that works using clean resources. The major aim is achieving energy-efficient system compared to the traditional system. This is approached by applying the equations of heat and mass equilibrium for a two-stage adsorption refrigeration cycle, taking into consideration the climate conditions in Syria. We solved the equations numerically to study the effects of different parameters changes. It is proved that the studied cycle can reach a relatively low temperature as -32 [oC]. Moreover, it can be operated in ambient temperature as high as 53 [oC]. In contrast, the coefficient of performance decreases with the decrease of the internal temperature and the increase of the ambient temperature. Additionally, the study shows that increase of the cooling load causes an accelerated reduction in the coefficient of performan. (author)
[en] Climate change is the greatest challenge facing the world in the 21. Century. After a period of growing awareness, things are now starting to change. Citizens are beginning to make their voice heard, for example with the climate marches involving millions of people worldwide. Companies and regions are stepping up their initiatives with solutions - often very localised - to get the energy transition underway, which are having tangible and replicable results. Everywhere, it is becoming clear that we can lower our carbon footprint and care for the environment. EDF, is also taking positive action. As producers of low-carbon electricity, and providers of very low-carbon solutions to customers and regions, EDF is developing products so that everyone can be part of the energy transition, in their own lives, by adopting virtuous behaviour at home, at work, and on the move. EDF is helping new forms of mobility and new ways of producing and consuming electricity to emerge. Electricity can be a vector for sustainable growth and well-being. For EDF, combating climate change requires a two-pronged approach: energy efficiency and low-carbon energy. To achieve these goals, the first solution is to develop low-carbon electricity to replace the fossil fuels used by consumers, households and industry. This will be backed by other solutions, such as renewable heat. This belief forms the foundation of EDF's strategy, which is built around three aspects: innovation serving customers, low-carbon electricity and international expansion. This is perfectly consistent with the focus of the multi-year energy programme, which confirms that France will place greater emphasis on low-carbon electricity in which renewables will be increasingly present alongside a strong base of nuclear power. These clear signals allow EDF to roll out its own climate strategy entirely consistent with the country's targets. This brochure presents EDF's strategy to become an efficient and responsible electricity company championing low-carbon growth: means helping customers to consume less and better, means eradicating CO2, means promoting EDF's low-carbon model
[en] A possibility of reconstructing the ion-atom dynamic interaction potential from the dependence of the rainbow scattering angle of nitrogen atoms under the conditions of grazing incidence on the surface of an aluminum crystal on the total kinetic energy of the accelerated atomic particles is demonstrated. The parameters of the dynamic interaction potential are determined within the energy range from 10 to 70 keV using the best possible fit between the calculated dependence of the rainbow scattering angle on the energy of the particles incident on the aluminum crystal surface along the crystallographic directions and the available experimental data.
[en] This report presents the results of the annual national survey on the development of district heating and cooling networks in France, based on 2018 data: 1 - Situation of French district heating networks (principle, advantages and characteristics of French networks, energy mix, cogeneration share, CO2 emissions, carbon footprint and avoided emissions, heat deliveries, networks densification, energy balance and efficiency); 2 - Regional key figures (French energy policy, figures and maps); 3 - Green energies in networks; 4 - District cooling in France in 2018 (principle, advantage and French situation, characteristics and energy mix, energy and environmental efficiency, deliveries, management and development objectives). The definitions, the methodology used and the questionnaire are attached in the appendix
[en] This synthesis report presents the results of the annual national survey on the development of district heating and cooling networks in France, based on 2018 data: district heating situation: number of networks, length, number of connected buildings, global heat and green heat delivered, carbon footprint, energy mix, sectoral deliveries (residential, industry, tertiary sector, agriculture..); district cooling situation: number of networks, length, number of connected buildings, carbon footprint, energy and environmental advantages; district heating and cooling networks as a de-carbonation vector (renewable energies development, CO2 emissions abatement); regional development (map); France's past, present and expected heat deliveries by 2030, and actual European ranking in terms of district heating networks development
[en] Monofluorides and monohydrides of Group 13 elements are prospective candidates for laser cooling experiments. In the present work, we present scalar-relativistic calculations of ground states and first excited states of these molecules. The spectroscopic constants are calculated using Dunham expansion. The main goal of this study was to provide the initial results to guide our subsequent more accurate four-component relativistic calculations. (authors)
[en] Accurate knowledge of the response of the detection system is very crucial for unambiguous interpretation of the experimental data. A simulation code has been developed using the Monte Carlo technique involving 3-body kinematics for the analysis of data obtained with segmented large area Si Δ E−E detector telescopes in nuclear reaction measurements. Care was taken in the analysis to maximize the angular coverage and statistics. The emphasis is placed to extract the absolute cross sections of the different reaction processes, for which coincident measurements are unavoidable. The estimated detection efficiency of different coincidence events are found to depend on various parameters, e.g., the relative energy of the breakup fragments, incident beam energy of the projectile, ground state Q-value of the reaction, the excitation of the ejectile as well as target like nuclei, mass asymmetry of the breakup fragments, detection threshold, and geometric solid angle of the detection setup. The interpretation of the various observables from the exclusive measurements of breakup and transfer breakup reactions is reported.
[en] In the present work, the isovector dipole responses, both in the resonance region and in the low-energy sector, are investigated using the microscopic nuclear Energy Density Functionals (EDFs). The self-consistent QRPA model based on Skyrme Hartree Fock BCS approach is applied to study the evolution of the isovector dipole strength by increasing neutron number and temperature. First, the isovector dipole strength and excitation energies are investigated for the Ni isotopic chain at zero temperature. The evolution of the low-energy dipole strength is studied as a function of the neutron number. In the second part, the temperature dependence of the isovector dipole excitations is studied using the self-consistent finite temperature QRPA, below and above the critical temperatures. It is shown that new excited states become possible due to the thermally occupied states above the Fermi level, and opening of the new excitations channels. In addition, temperature leads to fragmentation of the low-energy strength around the neutron separation energies, and between 9 and 12 MeV. We find that the cumulative sum of the strength below E≤12 MeV decreases in open-shell nuclei due to the vanishing of the pairing correlations as temperature increases up to T=1 MeV. The analysis of the transition densities in the low-energy region shows that the proton and neutron transition densities display a mixed pattern: both isoscalar and isovector motion of protons and neutrons are obtained inside nuclei, while the neutron transition density is dominant at the surface region.
[en] The state of Rio Grande do Norte is a leader in wind power generation in the country with more than 150 wind farms in operation and 4 GW of installed capacity. Although the wind energy industry continues to grow, there are still very few papers that analyze wind behavior at heights above 80 m, which is typically the height of a wind turbine rotor. In this paper, a 95 m wind behavior analysis was carried out in two wind farms in the city of Parazinho-RN on monthly, seasonal and hourly scale, with the goal of identifying which periods of 2017 were more favorable for wind power production in the region. The wind speed and direction data used in this study were collected by a Thies First Class high precision cup anemometer and a Thies Compact wind direction indicator, corresponding to the hourly average of the measurements performed every second and integrated in intervals of 10 minutes in the period from January 1 to December 31, 2017. According with the results presented in this paper, it was verified that spring is the season of 2017 that presents the highest average monthly wind speeds, with maximum peak in the month of September, while lower speeds vary during the March-April-May quarter. The diurnal period between 10:00 am and 5:00 pm local time is the one with the most frequently wind speed ≥ 10 m.s-1. Wind direction varies from east to south, with predominance of east and southeast directions, in about 80% of the time. During the quarters that correspond to summer and fall, Weibull distributions are more concentrated around 6.5 and 7 m.s-1, indicating that in this period of the year there is a greater probability of occurrence of lower average speeds, implying in lower productivity for wind energy. The opposite is observed in winter and spring, with the exception of June, where the distributions are more concentrated around speeds ≥ 8 m.s-1 and there is a higher probability of higher average speeds to occur, showing that this was the best period of the year 2017 for wind power generation. (author)