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[en] Ongoing climate change affects complex and long-lived infrastructures like electricity systems. Particularly for decarbonized electricity systems based on variable renewable energies, there is a variety of impact mechanisms working differently in size and direction. Main impacts for Europe include changes in wind and solar resources, hydro power, cooling water availability for thermoelectric generation and electricity demand. Hence, it is not only important to understand the total effects, i.e., how much welfare may be gained when accounting for climate change impacts in all dimensions, but also to disentangle various effects in terms of their marginal contribution to the potential welfare loss. This paper applies a two-stage modeling framework to assess RCP8.5 climate change impacts on the European electricity system. Thereby, the performance of two electricity system design strategies - one based on no anticipation of climate change and one anticipating impacts of climate change - is studied under a variety of climate change impacts. Impacts on wind and solar resources are found to cause the largest system effects in 2100. Combined climate change impacts increase system costs of a system designed without climate change anticipation due to increased fuel and carbon permit costs. Applying a system design strategy with climate change anticipation increases the cost-optimal share of variable renewable energy based on additional wind offshore capacity in 2100, at a reduction in nuclear, wind onshore and solar PV capacity. Compared to a no anticipation strategy, total system costs are reduced.
[en] This study aimed at assessing the ground-based mobilizable photovoltaic potential by using a sensitivity grid containing various criteria and by assigning each selected criterion with a stake level depending on its ability to receive an installation. The different phases of the study are reported. The first phase concerns the sensitivity grid elaboration. The second one addresses the taking of new criteria into account (critical size of pieces of land, law on Mountain, connection distance to the grid). The third phase addressed the assessment of the photovoltaic power potential
[en] While only about ten solar plants of more than 5 MW have been connected to the grid in the whole Sub-Saharan Africa, with four for Senegal, Africa remains far behind the development of solar plants, even though solar arrays and batteries are cheaper, this study aims at understanding the reasons for this failure in the development of solar energy in this continent. It first proposes an overview of the situation of solar energy in Africa (a rare and expensive electricity in most countries, a high potential but a still very low development, existing initiatives). The second part identifies and discusses the prerequisites for the development of solar projects financed by the private sector: actors present on the solar plant market in Africa, an adapted, pre-required and indispensable political and regulatory framework. The last part proposes explanations for the current delay: financing challenges, development aid policies which introduce distortions on the market, and limitations of the tendering mechanism.
[en] GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. In accordance with the French Energy Code, GRTgaz publishes a 10-year development plan for its gas distribution network in France every year. This document is produced in line with European and French energy policies. It identifies the transport infrastructure that will need to be built over the next three years, and presents the main infrastructure that is likely to be developed within the next ten years. It incorporates the supply security obligations that TSOs are required to fulfil. It takes account of interested parties' needs and projects at the national, supranational and European levels. It is based on existing gas supply and demand and reasonable medium-term development forecasts for gas infrastructure, consumption and international trade
[en] We present an overview on the evolution equations one obtains in the passage from the nonrelativistic to the relativistic framework, emphasizing the connections between the diffusive, optical and quantum models. A new evolution equation, the Pearcey equation, is introduced in the frame of this general representation. The aim of this paper is to find a relativistic counterpart of the heat equation. (author)
[en] This publication first proposes an overview of the situation and objectives of the photovoltaic sector in France and in the Provence-Alpes-Cote-d'Azur (PACA) region: legal and regulatory context, 2018-2028 Energy Multi-Year Programming, different photovoltaic sectors, development status in France and in the PACA region, support mechanisms, development objectives in France and in the PACA region. It addresses the implementation of photovoltaic installations on roofs and on parking shade-houses (regional framework, sensitivity analysis, regulation, recommendations), and the case of photovoltaic greenhouses (context and definitions, returns on experience, technical recommendations, project analysis, innovation)
[en] The 21. annual World Energy Markets Observatory (WEMO) reveals a world struggling to balance the desire for continued economic growth with the need to take deliberate and drastic steps against climate change. In 2018, global energy consumption rose 2.3 percent - nearly twice the average rate since 2010 - as driven by a robust worldwide economy. Despite the rapid growth of renewables in some regions, oil, gas and coal accounted for nearly three-quarters of the increase in total energy demand, their highest share in five years. As a result, greenhouse gas emissions climbed 2 percent globally, a significant break from the plateau of 2014 to 2016. While renewables remain the fastest-growing energy source worldwide, investments during the first half of 2019 declined 14 percent compared with the same period in 2018. Population growth, as well as a lack of anticipated technical breakthroughs over the next two decades, further contribute to a bleak medium- and long-term landscape. This year's WEMO report explores these issues in greater detail and presents new ideas for how utilities, policy-makers and private companies can embrace a long-term strategy that balances growth and change - and draws opportunity from crisis.
[en] The ocean energy sector has been a beehive of activity over the last three years with many prototypes being submerged off the British, Brittany, North Sea and Mediterranean coastlines. Tidal stream energy leads wave energy conversion and the other technologies in this ocean race. This is the first time that the sector has been specifically monitored for a regular EurObserv'ER theme-based barometer
[en] This report proposes an overview of costs of photovoltaic installations of medium and high power (between 100 kWc and 30 MWc) developed within the frame of tenders in the French main land territory. After a presentation of methodological elements, the report addresses investment costs (general overview, connection, modules, converters, other electrical hardware, structures), exploitation costs and taxes (general overview, operation and maintenance costs, insurances, renting, electric power sale fees), financial aspects (project financing, expected profitabilities), and the global production cost (methodology, hypotheses for possible production, for costs, and for updating).