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[en] In accordance with French legislation, each year RTE drafts and publishes the 'Generation Adequacy Report' concerning the supply-demand balance of electricity. As a diagnostic reference for security of supply and of the electric network, the report is a key corporate exercise which is used to shed light on the medium to long term forecasts for security of supply, and therefore to develop national energy policies. This 2019 report presents: 1 - The Generation Adequacy Report as a reference document about the security of supply in France; 2 - The relative stability of the French consumption which may continue into the medium term; 3 - The supply in France: a key moment for the energy transition with many uncertainties; 4 - Europe: a refined representation taking into account the energy policies and the exchanges between countries; 5 - The supply-demand balance diagnosis; 6 - Sensitivity to alternate configurations in France and in Europe; 7 - Action-levers; 8 - Characteristics of a power system in transition; 9 - Appendixes: installed parks and balance sheets
[en] The European Union solar thermal market for heat, heating, and domestic hot water production held up well in 2019. Initial estimates put the total installed collector area at just under 2.3 million m2, which is a slight increase (1.5%) on its 2018 level. However, individual country situations vary, and the sector still has to reinvent itself to meet the huge challenge of climate neutrality. The term Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) covers all the technologies that aim to transform solar radiation energy into very high temperature heat to convert it into electricity. Most of the current CSP development is going on in countries and regions that offer suitably conducive sunlight conditions, such as China, India, Australia, South Africa, the Middle East, and the Maghreb. The European Union's new CSP plant installation pace slowed down considerably after an initial flurry concentrated in Spain between 2007 and 2014. In 2019, the European Union gauge moved up slightly to 2 323 MW when the eLLO project in the Pyrenees-Orientales, France, officially came on stream.
[en] This paper presents an analysis of available options of restructuring of energy sector within the broader context of economic development without undermining the global climate. Such restructuring involves active implementation of emission free energy sources which ensure sustainable generation of electricity of standard quality in a climate-friendly way. Using available statistical data, the authors analyzed the dynamics of global energy consumption in relation to the level of economic development. The hypothesis of saturation of energy demand during the transition to post-industrial economic development has been confirmed. Saturation of energy demand creates opportunities for a wide scale utilization of innovative ecological methods of climate stabilization and environmental restoration. Restructuring of energy sector in environmentally-safe manner can be especially important in the conditions of fast economic growth of the world’s largest developing economies (China and India). Economic growth in these countries is currently characterized by a rapid increase in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper provides quantitative estimates of the investments required for stabilization of global climate under the projections of future energy demands over the next three decades. The proposed scenario of restructuring of energy sector can be economically feasible, and it is quite likely that electricity in the future will be mainly generated from renewable energy sources and nuclear energy. The numeric estimates and the analysis presented in this paper can be used in formulation of climate stabilization policies in a rapidly growing global economy. (author)
[en] This publication proposes an assessment of variation ranges of the average complete cost of production of a MWh (also called Levelized Cost of Energy or LCOE) for renewable sectors producing electric power and/or heat, but also for sectors related to electricity storage and to bio-methane injection. For each sector, the main objective was to calculate LCOE variation ranges for an installation put into service in France in 2018, in 2030 or in 2050. For some sectors, the study also tracked LCOE evolutions between 2008 and 2018, and compared the LCOE in France in 2018 with that of some other countries (when data were available). Sectors are herein associated with the energy source: photovoltaic (residential, middle sized roofs, large roofs, ground-based plants), wind (onshore, offshore), hydroelectricity, domestic heat (wood, thermal solar, domestic heat pumps), collective industrial or agricultural heat (thermal solar, biomass, surface geothermal, deep geothermal, fatal heat recovery), biogas (co-generation, injection), and storage (batteries, hydrogen). After a synthesis of results, the report presents the adopted methodology, assessments of electric power production costs for the different sectors, assessments of heat domestic production costs, assessments of collective and industrial heat production costs, the case of biogas and of electricity storage, and an assessment of production costs of solar technologies in non interconnected areas
[en] The constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximation, based on the recent parametrization D1M* of the Gogny energy density functional, is used to describe fission in 435 superheavy nuclei. The Gogny-D1M* parametrization is benchmarked against available experimental data on inner and second barrier heights, excitation energies of the fission isomers and half-lives in a selected set of Pu, Cm, Cf, Fm, No, Rf, Sg, Hs and Fl nuclei. Results are also compared with those obtained with the Gogny-D1M energy density functional. A detailed study of the minimal energy fission paths is carried out for isotopic chains with atomic numbers 100 ≤Z≤ 126 including very neutron-rich sectors up to around 4 MeV from the two-neutron driplines. Single-particle energies, ground state deformations, pairing correlations, two-nucleon separation energies and barrier heights are also discussed. In addition to fission paths, the constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov framework provides collective masses and zero-point quantum rotational and vibrational energies. Those quantities are building blocks within the Wentzel-Kramer-Brillouin formalism employed to evaluate the systematic of the spontaneous fission half-lives tSF. The competition between spontaneous fission and -decay is studied, through the computation of the -decay half-lives t using a parametrization of the Viola-Seaborg formula. From the comparison with the available experimental data and the results obtained with other theoretical approaches, it is concluded that D1M* represents a reasonable starting point to describe fission in heavy and superheavy nuclei.
[en] In 2019, France's primary energy production decreased by 2.7% due to a decline in nuclear power generation. Despite a slight increase of the deficit in physical energy trade, the energy bill has decreased to euros 44 billion, benefiting from the drop of gas prices. At constant climate, France's end consumption of primary energy has diminished by 0.7%, mainly in the industrial and tertiary sectors. CO2 emissions from energy sources are dropping by 1.1% at constant climate, thanks to the drop of coal consumption
[en] We present extensions and new developments of the in-medium no-core shell model (IMNCSM), which is a novel ab initio many-method that merges the multi-reference in-medium similarity renormalization group (MR-IM-SRG) with the no-core shell model (NCSM) - two complementary and successful ab initio many-body methods. Within the IM-NCSM framework, the MR-IM-SRG employs a correlated NCSM reference state and unitarily transforms observables such that the reference state is decoupled. Consequently, the model-space convergence of a subsequent NCSM calculation is substantially accelerated - demonstrating the power of the IM-SRG decoupling scheme - and the IM-NCSM can treat nuclei that are out of reach for traditional NCSM calculations. In earlier applications we already employed the IM-NCSM for addressing scalar observables w.r.t. ground and excited states in even open-shell nuclei, however, this initial formulation of the IM-NCSM had several restrictions that we eliminate in this work. Due to the spherical formulation of the IM-SRG equations - which is mandatory from a computational point of view - the total angular momentum of the reference state is required to vanish and, thus, the IM-NCSM was restricted to the treatment of even nuclei. The particle-attached/particle-removed extension overcomes this restriction and makes odd nuclei accessible. Furthermore, the spherical formulation of the IM-SRG equations did not account for non-scalar operators and, therefore, the consistent transformation of electromagnetic observables was not possible. By deriving and implementing the IM-SRG equations corresponding to non-scalar observables, we open up the possibility to calculate electromagnetic observables from the IM-NCSM. These observables are sensitive to different aspects of the wave functions and, therefore, ideal for validating theoretical models and new opportunities for fruitful collaborations with experimentalists are opened up. For the transformation of observables we implemented a Magnus-type transformation, which determines the generator for the IM-SRG transformation and greatly reduces the computational effort. Considering numerical applications, we employ the IM-NCSM for the calculation of groundstate energies, excitation energies, radii, magnetic dipole moments, electric quadrupole moments, B(M1) transitions, and B(E2) transitions, where we study various medium-mass nuclei up to calcium isotopes. These calculations are already converged at very small model-space sizes-showing the great advantage of the IM-NCSM - and the results are compatible with large-scale NCSM calculations. These applications demonstrate that the IM-NCSM is now capable of addressing the full range of nuclear structure observables - including spectroscopic and electromagnetic observables - in fully open-shell nuclei.
[en] Neoen is the leading French independent producer of renewable energy and a major player on the world stage. Neoen is a specialist, independent power producer with a long-term vision that translates into a strategy to produce renewable, competitively-priced energy, sustainably and on a large scale. Neoen's total capacity in operation and under construction is currently over 3 GW. This document is the 2019 annual financial report of the company. It presents: 1 - The Business report: Activities; Alternative performance indicators and operating data; Analysis of operations and results; Financing and investments; Risks and uncertainties; Insurance and risk management; Intellectual property; Information on trends and objectives; 2 - The capital and share-holding structure: Information on the Company; Capital; Share-holding structure; 3 - The Report on corporate governance: State of governance; Organisation of corporate governance; Remuneration of corporate officers; 4 - The Sustainable development and corporate social responsibility: Vision, policies and organization; Main risks with regard to corporate social and environmental responsibility; Health and safety at the heart of the Group's preoccupations; Dialogue of quality with local communities; Ethical and responsible practices all along the value chain; A proactive environmental policy; Attracting and developing talents; Report of the independent third-party body; Vigilance plan; 5 - The Financial statements and statutory auditors reports: Neoen Group consolidated financial statements as of December 31, 2019; Statutory auditors' certification report on the consolidated financial statements of Neoen Group as of December 31, 2019; Annual financial statements of Neoen S.A. as of December 31, 2019; Statutory auditors' certification report on the annual financial statements of Neoen S.A. as of December 31, 2019; 6 - Glossary; 7 - Declaration by the person responsible for the annual financial report
[en] The phase transitions and spectral statistical properties in Nd, Sm, Gd, and Dy isotopes are investigated by spherical mean-field plus standard pairing model. The results of the model calculations successfully reproduce the critical phenomena observed experimentally in the two-neutron separation energy, odd–even mass differences, α-decay, double β-decay energy and the first pairing excitation states of these isotopes with the critical point at the neutron number N∼90. As the only parameter in the model, the pairing interaction strength G is determined by fitting the binding energies, the odd–even mass differences and the energies of the first and second pairing excitation states for the Nd, Sm, Gd, and Dy isotopes. The spectral statistical properties of the excited levels of Sm isotopes show that the quantum chaos exists in Sm which corresponds to the critical point at N∼90. It is inferred that the transitional region is the most sensitive region to perturbation, leading generically to the typical signature of quantum chaos. Moreover, the results indicate that this critical behavior is related not only to the ground-state but also to the excited-state under the present model. It may provide us a microscopic picture that the ground-state phase transition and the quantum chaos behaviors may drive by the competition between the spherical mean-field and the pairing interaction based on the present model for Nd, Sm, Gd, and Dy isotopes.
[en] The fission pathway of even–even actinide nuclei have been systematically calculated using the deformation-constrained nuclear density functional theory beyond the second fission barriers within the UNEDF1 energy-density functionals (EDFs). Our calculated results show that, allowing for triaxial deformation, the second fission barriers are lowered by a few hundreds of keV to 2 MeV. For the heaviest actinides, it is found that inclusion of triaxial deformation reduces the outer barrier significantly.