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[en] Since the very beginnings of power production from.nuclear energy, experience, with these plants has naturally been of great and widespread interest. On the one hand, it serves as a basis for improvements in design and operating procedures, on the other hand, it indicates the extent, to which plants of a particular type have achieved and maintained satisfactory performance. Operating experience with individual plants or those in a particular country, has been reported at numerous scientific meetings, in scientific journals, and elsewhere. The object of this report is to gather together the considerable amount of information available on experience with these plants and present it in a convenient summarized form.
[en] To enable the Agency to carry out its safeguards functions, the Statute gives the Agency the following rights: • To examine the design of facilities for the purpose of effective application of safeguards; • To require the maintenance of inventories and operating records to ensure the accounting for source and special fissionable materials; • To ask for reports periodically on inventories and on the operation of a facility; and • To send into the territory of States inspectors designated by the Agency, after consultation with the State concerned.
[en] Even though toll enrichment is a relatively new mechanism for the distribution of US enriched uranium, having only become available at the beginning of this year, the fundamental supply principles of the US Atomic Energy Commission have remained unchanged. In particular, I would like to call your attention to the two basic principles which have served as the foundation for the US supply policy, dating from President Eisenhower's supply policy enunciation of almost thirteen years ago. First, there is the assurance of long term availability of enriched uranium for periods of time equivalent to the reasonable economic life of the facilities supplied, and second, the principle of nondiscriminatory terms and conditions which are as nearly as possible identical to those applicable to US customers of enriched uranium.
[en] The forecasts for the growth of world nuclear capacity which is expected to reach 30,000 MW in 1970, 110,000 MW in 1975 and more than 300,000 MW by 1980, have been accompanied by a series of economic analyses whose number and variety are probably unparalleled in the history of any other industry. The methods used in these analyses must, however, be judged not only on. the basis of their theoretical validity, but also in terms of their practical applicability to concrete situations. With this purpose in mind, a brief review of the general criteria for economic selection of investment projects, of their application.to the analysis of nuclear power and of some points of special importance for developing countries will be carried out. Since review of this kind would remain a somewhat abstract exercise an attempt has been made to flesh out the theoretical considerations by concrete figures based on the latest information available, and simplified generating costs comparisons have been added in an annex. The very purpose of the paper would be defeated if these figures, were, taken as more than illustrative values whose relevance to each case can only be ascertained by detailed economic analyses taking full account of the relevant bids as well as of the specific technical and economic features of the power system and of the country involved.
[en] As is known, expectations with respect to nuclear power.have changed rather radically. Initially, immediately after the 1955 Geneva Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, expectations-were extremely optimistic. At that time a number of experimental nuclear reactors were working reliably in several parts of the world, and the world's first commercial nuclear power station, a 5000-kW facility with a uranium-graphite water—cooled channel-type reactor, was commissioned at Obninsk in the USSR in 1954. Relatively large commercial electricity-generating units of the ''first generation'' were then constructed including the 100-MW Beloyarsk power -station and the 210-MW Novo-Voronezh power station in the USSR, and also nuclear power stations in Great Britain, the United States, France and Italy. It emerged from this experience that the cost of constructing these first nuclear power stations was two or three times that of constructing power generating stations of similar capacity based on fossil fuel. The attitude to atomic power stations, especially among experts on traditional power engineering, consequently changed to a clearly pessimistic one. The overall result has been that the development of nuclear power stations in general is progressing more slowly than was initially hoped.
[en] The second International Survey Course on Technical and. Economic Aspects of Nuclear Power was held from 1-12 September 1969 in Vienna. The object of the Course was to review the latest available information on pertinent aspects of nuclear power which would, be useful in planning and implementing of nuclear power programmes. The main topics discussed were current technical and economic status, operating experience with and future outlook of the available nuclear power systems; prospects of small and medium power reactors of potential interest to developing countries; development of advanced and fast breeder reactors nuclear fuel cycles including the problems of prospecting and processing uranium ores, supply of fissionable material through the IAEA, and fuel cycle services; comparative economics of nuclear and conventional plants; regulatory aspects; nuclear desalination and agro-industrial complexes; and finally the problems of introducing nuclear power and management of nuclear power projects.
[en] The most fundamental approach to electric power generation cost calculation ia based on the requirement that, after appropriate correction for the ''time-value of money'', the sum of all cash incomes roust equal the sum of all cash outflows. From this point of view it is important to know the amounts of-money-paid out and received and the corresponding times, together with the rules for comparing payments and receipts occurring at different times. Thus the breakdown of the generation cost into categories such as ''capital'' and ''operating'' costs, or ''fixed'' and ''variable'' costs, or ''direct'' and ''indirect'' costs, etc. is somewhat arbitrary.
[en] The subject of my lecture is the use of nuclear energy for sea water desalination. During this study course this is the only lecture we will have on desalination and therefore we have many points to cover. I propose to cover these points in the following order: (1) Determining the feasibility, of nuclear desalination (2) Nuclear desalination and plant cycles (3) Additional nuclear desalination plant considerations and recent desalination developments. In several cases, whore there is only time for a summary, there is a more complete treatment in the Appendices.
[en] In evaluating the cost of power from a nuclear station, one of the more contentious features is still perhaps that of accounting for fuel bred within the reactor itself. For present purposes such bred fuel will be identified with plutonium. Among various ways of accounting for plutonium may be mentioned: (i) assignment of some fixed monetary value per unit amount; (ii) the use of indifference curves; (iii) closed system analysis; any one of which may be used with widely differing sets of assumptions.
[en] Pakistan is one of the very few developing countries which have nuclear power plants actually under construction. The country has a unique geographical position in the sense that it consists of two provinces, namely East Pakistan and West Pakistan, which are physically separated by over 1000 miles of Indian territory. Because of the physical separation of the two provinces, the power systems and the development programmes in the two provinces are considered separately.