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Geothermal opportunities in Aquitaine. Geothermal opportunities in southern Aquitaine - Study of Upper Cretaceous, Dano-Paleocene and Eocene reservoirs. Geothermal potential of the Aquitaine basin. Confrontation between low energy geothermal resources and identified needs in Aquitaine. Geothermal energy in Aquitaine - Situation of achievements at the end of 1991 (inquiry report). Decision support instrument in the field of very low and low energy geothermal in the Aquitaine region - Atlas of the geothermal potential of aquifers - Final report. Assessment of the animation for the development of geothermal sectors in Aquitaine, for the period June 2015-October 2016 - Final report. Cartography of regulatory zones of minor importance geothermal with respect to geological risks, and complements to the atlas of the Aquitaine geothermal potential - Final report
[en] A first study aimed at inventorying geological formations which would likely provide water at a temperature of at least 50 C, and with a flow rate of about 100 m3/h. This inventory has been performed through a systematic study of the main aquifers of the Aquitaine region. Structural maps and isobath maps have been established. A second document reports the study of reservoirs located in different geological formation (Upper Cretaceous, Dano Paleocene and Eocene). The third document reports a geothermal assessment of the Aquitaine basin in its different geological formations. For each of these formations, the main parameters related to reservoirs and sheets are presented (lithofacies, extension, depth, thickness, permeability, piezometry, communications, temperature and hydrochemistry). Another document reports a comparison between low energy geothermal resources and identified needs (heating consumptions, domestic hot water) in Aquitaine by exploiting maps and data regarding these consumptions and aquifer characteristics. A document reports the results obtained by an inquiry on exploitation data of 17 different geothermal drillings in Aquitaine (site locations and characteristics, geothermal resources, interveners, operation description sheets). The next document reports the development of an atlas of the very-low and low-energy geothermal potential of aquifers (principles, resources, types, and exploitation technologies, production in the world, Europe and France, support mechanisms and incentive procedures, regulatory context, geological and hydrogeological context, atlas design and maps). A report then proposes an assessment of animation activities for the development of geothermal energy in Aquitaine between June 2015 and October 2016. The development of maps representing various geological risks is finally reported in the case of minor importance geothermal (general principles, geological and hydrogeological context, geothermal potentials of surface aquifers, related risk cartography)
[en] The subsoil, long unknown to a part of the industrial world, now allows it to meet two obligations: - the creation of hydrocarbon reserves (a 1958 decree requires refiners and distributors of petroleum products to have a stock corresponding to three months of national consumption); - the evacuation of industrial wastes that are difficult to destruct (the considerable increase in the production of nuclear electric power between 1980 and 2000, gives rise to the formation of radioactive wastes, the elimination of which is now a concern). The different underground storage techniques are described succinctly. It is also essential to establish an inventory of sites (used and usable) for underground storage of hydrocarbons, the injection of liquid industrial wastes into the deep layers of the subsoil, the release and storage of radioactive wastes
[fr]Le sous-sol, longtemps ignore d'une partie du monde industriel, lui permet aujourd'hui de faire face a deux obligations: - la constitution de reserves d'hydrocarbures (le decret du 10 mars 1958 impose aux raffineurs et aux distributeurs de produits petroliers d'avoir un stock correspondant a trois mois de consommation nationale); - l'evacuation de dechets difficilement destructibles (l'essor considerable que va connaitre la production d'electricite d'origine nucleaire entre 1980 et l'an 2000, donnera lieu a la formation de dechets radioactifs dont l'elimination doit etre des maintenant une preoccupation). Les differentes techniques qui sont decrites succinctement ici, sont les plus modernes utilisees et il n'est pas interdit de penser que, dans un avenir relativement proche, leur evolution ira tres loin. Aussi il est indispensable d'etablir un inventaire des sites utilises et utilisables pour le stockage souterrain d'hydrocarbures, l'injection des dechets industriels liquides dans les couches profondes du sous- sol, le rejet et le stockage de dechets radioactifs. (auteur)
[en] In this academic engineering report, the author first reports the study of the separation of low quantities of α emitting radioisotopes in biological samples: physical (toxicity, radiotoxicity) and chemical properties of searched elements, issues related to chemistry in large dilutions, issues specific to chemistry of biological environments, prior treatment of biological environments for the recovery of elements to be dosed, isolation and purification techniques. Then, he reports the study of the isolation of α emitters present in biological environments by liquid-liquid extraction: recalls on liquid-liquid extraction, study of different extraction systems, extraction of studied elements. The last part addresses the measurement of α radioactivity of elements extracted from biological environments by using scintillation for their detection.
[en] The combustion heat of excess hydrogen in chloro fluoride compounds ClF, ClF3, ClF5 and oxychloro fluoride compounds O2ClF, O3ClF, OClF3 were determined in an original bomb calorimeter. This apparatus which can work at temperature up to 473K and under 10 atmospheres pressure as two compartments and high frequency electric spark ignition. The enthalpies of formation and bond energies are calculated. The temperature and enthalpies of the solid/solid and solid/liquid transformations were determined with a differential micro-calorimeter, of the fluxmeter type (M.C.B.) (sensibility 70μV detector/mW.cell, temperature range 80-1000K, maximal pressure 15 atmospheres).
[fr]Les chaleurs de combustion de l'hydrogene en exces dans les composes chloro fluores ClF, ClF3, ClF5 et les composes oxychloro fluores O2ClF, O3ClF, OClF3, ont ete determinees dans une bombe calorimetrique originale. Cet appareil qui peut fonctionner jusqu'a 473K et 10 atmospheres est a double compartiment et amorcage eventuel de la reaction par etincelle electrique de haute frequence. Les enthalpies de formation et les energies de liaisons entre les atomes constituant la molecule ont ete calculees. Les temperatures et les enthalpies de transformation solide/solide et solide/liquide des composes chloro et oxychloro fluores ont ete mesurees a l'aide d'un microcalorimetre differentiel de type fluxmetre (M.C.B.) specialement mis au point pour cette etude (sensibilite 70μV/mW dissipe, gamme de temperature 80-1000K, pression maximale 15 atmospheres).
[en] The author first presents various dosing methods such as physical analysis methods (spectrophotometry, X fluorescence spectrophotometry, radiometric analysis), chemical analysis methods (gravimetry, micro-volumetry), and electrochemical analysis methods (potentiometry, polarography, coulometry, electrolytic deposits), and then more particularly addresses the polarographic method (principles, analysis of neptunium-plutonium solutions) and the coulometric method (generalities, study in acid environment, study in basic environment, Neptunium VII) in order to determine quantitatively neptunium with or without plutonium.