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[en] Solar energy is one of the promising resources of renewable energy. It is of particular interest due to the energy shortage and environment pollution problems. Water heating by solar energy for domestic use is one of the most successful and feasible applications of solar energy. The thermosyphon SDHWS and the loop type thermosyphon systems are widely used for domestic hot water system. The loop type thermosyphon is a circulation device for transferring the heat produced at the evaporator area to the condenser area in the loop by a working fluid. The system has the advantage of high heat transfer rate. A phase change of the working fluid occurs at the evaporator section and the vapor is transported to the condenser by the density gradient. The loop type thermosyphon collector can be made of smaller area and has higher efficiency than the present thermosyphon SDHWS. In this study, the operating characteristics of various working fluids being used have been identified. The working fluids employed in the study were ethanol, water and a binary mixture of ethanol and water. The volume of working fluid used in this study were 30%, 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% of evaporator volume. An increased heat was applied with the increased volume of working fluid. It is observed that, in the thermosyphon with low volume of working fluid, such as 30% or 40%, the fluid was dried out. The average efficiency of the loop type thermosyphon was 46% with high solar irradiation and 43% with low irradiation. The flow pattern and mechanism of the heat transfer were identified through this study. Flow patterns of the binary mixture working fluid were also investigated, and the patterns were recorded in the camera. The system parameters were calculated using the thermal performance data. Modelling of the system was carried out using PSTAR method and TRNSYS program
[en] Nature has been giving us energy from the beginning of the world. But human hardly use it. Solar energy is a kind of energy from the nature. This study has been carried out to study the use of solar energy as it is harnessed in the form of thermal energy. Solar energy is one of the most promising energy resources on earth and in space, because it is clean and inexhaustible. Heat for comfort in buildings can be provided from solar energy by systems that are similar in many respects to the water heater systems. To utilize the solar energy, we can not only solve the problem of energy shortage, but also can protect the environment and benefit the human beings. We must think about how to absorb the solar energy more efficiently, how to store more energy, and other problems such as additional electrical-heating system. This study deals with the collection of solar energy and its storage in all-glass solar vacuum tubes for different types of header design, flow passage and heat transfer devices. In order to elicit the most efficient combination of header design, flow passage, heat transfer hardware and operating conditions, we have studied four different types of solar collectors utilizing vacuum tubes. We selected the evacuated solar collector with metal cap and the all-glass evacuated solar collector. These collectors are more efficient than flat-plate collectors in both direct and diffuse solar radiation. The all-glass evacuated collector have been widely utilized due to their high efficiency, low heat losses, long lifetime and low costs. The evacuated solar collector in the present study uses a single vacuum solar collector either with a heat pipe (SEIDO 5) or with a 'dual pipe' flow passage (SEIDO 2). The one with heat pipe is designed such that the condensing section of heat pipe is inserted into a pipe header where the water from the storage tank is constantly circulated. Solar energy is transferred in the form of heat as it is ultimately saved in the storage tank. Similar principle is applied in the 'dual pipe' type where cold water enters the inner pipe and flows along the outer pipe raising its temperature thanks to the irradiation of solar energy. Different from these in its design and heat collection mechanism, all glass solar vacuum collector is utilized more efficiently and more conveniently in harnessing the solar energy. The 'U-pipe' type is one of those methods, which became quite popular recently with the usage of all glass solar vacuum tubes. Water is heated as it flows through the U-shaped copper pipe placed inside the vacuum tube. A rolled copper sheet tightly inserted along the inner surface of inner tube enhances heat transfer between the heated collector surface and the water contained in the U-shaped copper pipe. This study has been carried out a series of tests under the same conditions to elicit the most suitable model, which deems to enhance heat transfer and improve its durability in utilizing solar vacuum tubes
[en] Nature has been providing us energy from the beginning of the world. However human has hardly used it wisely. Solar energy is a kind of renewable energy from the nature. This study has been carried out to study the use of solar energy as it is harnessed in the form of thermal energy. Solar energy is one of the most promising energy resources such as hydrogen, biomass, wind and geothermal energy, because it is clean and inexhaustible. Space heating in buildings can be provided from solar energy by systems that are similar in many respects to water heater systems. By tapping into solar energy, we can not only solve the problem of energy shortage, but also can protect the environment and benefit the human beings. There are currently two types of evacuated tube; a single glass tube and a double glass tube. The former consists of a single glass tube which contains a flat or curved aluminium plate attached to a copper heat pipe or water flow pipe. The latter consists of rows of parallel transparent glass tubes, each of which contains an absorber tube. Evacuated tube collectors introduced above, however, pose some problems as they break rather easily under mechanical stresses. This paper introduces some preliminary results in design and fabrication of a non-glass solar vacuum tube collector in which the thermosyphon(heat pipe)made of copper is used as a heat transfer device. A series of tests have been performed to assess the ability of a non-glass solar vacuum tube collector. The series of experiments are as follows: 1)Vacuum level inside a vacuum tube. 2)Effects of the air remaining inside a vacuum tube on the temperature on the absorber plate. 3)Comparison of a non-glass vacuum solar collector with a single glass evacuated tube(SEIDO 5). Different vacuum levels inside non-glass vacuum tubes were applied to check any leakage or unexpected physical or chemical developments with time. The vacuum level changed from 10-2torr to 5torr in 5 days due to air infiltration from the ambient and gas emissions from the materials they were made of. The effect of vacuum levels inside a vacuum tube on the absorber plate were investigated in different conditions. Due to less heat losses to the ambient, the non-glass vacuum tube at vacuum level 10-2 torr kept more heat at higher temperatures compared to the non-glass vacuum tube collectors whose vacuum levels were at 5 torr. However, the temperature was not linearly proportional to the vacuum level. Two types of solar collectors were used to investigate the ability of non-glass solar vacuum tube: one single glass evacuated tube and one non-glass vacuum tubes(10-2torr). The efficiency of a non-glass vacuum tube with 10-2torr was different from that of a single glass evacuated tube in which vacuum level is 10-4∼10-5torr due to the transmittance of ZnO. Unlike glass evacuated tubes, non-glass solar vacuum tubes generally require some measures to prevent air infiltration through invisible pores of the tube wall and gas emission from the materials. If the problems related with vacuum inside a tube are solved, the non-glass vacuum collector will work more efficiently
[en] This work has been carried out to find the ideal operating conditions for solar vacuum tube collectors which are widely used at present. Various types of solar collectors including a flat plate one were experimentally tested and examined to determine their thermal efficiencies and operating characteristics. Generally, solar vacuum tubes can be classified into two groups according to their design features. Of these, one is characterized by the insertion of a metallic device(such as a finned heat pipe) in an evacuated glass tube for the collection and transportation of solar energy. The other utilizes double glass tubes where the smaller one is contained inside the bigger one and soldered to each other after the small gap between them is evacuated. Both of these solar collectors are designed to minimize convection heat losses by removing the air which is in direct contact with the absorber surface. The performance of the former type can be readily analyzed by applying the relevant correlations developed for flat plate solar collectors. This has been demonstrated in the present study for the case of a solar collector where a heat pipe is inserted in an evacuated tube
[en] A general study on heat transfer in dry packed beds is made, with special emphasis in comparing different transient models and in identifying the required conditions by which the attained results are equivalent. The differences in thermal behaviour on packed beds, when simultaneous heat mass transfer occurs as wet air is used as heat transfer fluid and exchanges heat and water with the solid in the bed, is analyzed. We modelize wet packed beds considering them as one dimension adsorbents beds, with dispersive and non-dispersive models, where adsorption, condensation-evaporation and liquid water downward flow from condensate phenomena are present. Models were solved numerically and experiments with a rock bed with dry and wet air through it, were made to test assumptions and to further understand the behavior of the system, obtaining a pretty good agreement between expected and measured profiles of the temperature evolution within the packed bed. As a possible application of the wet rock bed for storage purposes, a forced ventilation greenhouse was characterized as a wet air solar heater and analyzed the energetic potential of storing the heat that has to be rejected during daytime to control the crop ambient conditions, in a rock bed for later use at night for heating. (author)
[en] The German Federal Government published its energy concept in September 2010 with a description of the road into the era of renewable energies. Therefore, the future renewable energy installed in Germany is expected to consist mostly of wind and solar, which are subject to intermittency of supply and significant fluctuations. The growing portion of energy generation by fluctuating sources is turning to a big challenge for the power plant unit commitment and the investment decisions as well. In this thesis, a fundamental electricity market model with combined modeling of these two aspects is developed. This model is subsequently applied to the German electricity market to investigate what kind of power plant investments are indispensable, considering the steadily increasing portion of energy generation from fluctuating sources, to ensure a reliable energy supply in a cost-effective way in the future. In addition, current energy policy in Germany regarding the use of renewable energy and nuclear energy is analyzed.
[en] Solar energy is one of the most promising energy resources on Earth and in space, because it is clean and inexhaustible. This is one of the reasons that we were interested in developing a solar-powered high efficient system which can be heated using thermal radiation from a solar receiver maintained at a high temperature by concentrated solar irradiation. In order to utilize the solar energy at high temperatures, here we used a solar energy collecting system that mainly consists of a parabolic dish concentrator and a cavity receiver. For the system considered, it is essential to minimize thermal losses and maximize the energy density for the procurement of high temperature, high efficiency systems. In solar energy applications, parabolic reflectors are employed to concentrate incoming radiation onto a smaller receiver. This is why concentrators can reduce heat losses in thermal collectors. The characteristics of the focal plane flux distributions produced by a dish solar concentration system were investigated to design and rightly position a cavity receiver. This deemed also very useful to find and correct various errors associated with a dish concentrator. The video graphic flux mapping was used to investigate flux distributions in the focal plane located at the aperture of the cavity receiver. The concentrator used in this study consists of 5 parabolic reflectors, each with 1m in diameter, which are made of 3mm thick back-silvered glass. The nominal focal length of the concentrator is 2.20m. In this study, 1) We estimated the flux density distribution on the target placed at 2.11m, 2.14m, 2.17m, 2.20m, 2.23m, 2.26m from the dish vertex to experimentally determine the focal length. It is observed that the actual focal point exists when the focal length is 2.17m with a maximum flux density of 1.89 MW/m2. 2) By evaluating the position of flux centroid, it was found that there are errors within 2cm from the target center. This validates that our system is well designed and suitably arranged. 3) The total power contained within a given radius from the center of the target is measured to design optimum size of a receiver. It is measured that 90% of the incident radiation is intercepted with a radius of 0.06m. 4) The area concentration ratio normalized to 800 W/m2 insolation and 90% mirror reflectivity was 347 suns. The total integrated power of 2467 W was measured under focal flux distributions, which corresponds to the intercept rate of 85.8%
[en] An excessive use of fossil fuel leads to the limitation of coal deposits and carbon dioxide accumulation that accelerates the global warming, so the international environment regulation becomes more strict to control the greenhouse gas emission. Many researches are being made on alternative energy development to cut down fossil fuel and to decrease carbon dioxide. During the last decade, there have been active tries to utilize the solar energy that is unlimited and clean . The application of solar energy to heating and cooling of the building has much improved the economical efficiency and function with the development of high-technology materials, and it is not rare to find the recently built houses and commercial buildings equipped with solar energy systems. In particular, the advanced countries such as USA and Japan attempt the remarkable reduction of energy consumption in heating and cooling of buildings. For this, they are searching for the more effective application of various alternative energies including the solar energy. In addition, they are trying to realize the distinct zero energy conception by applying the new techniques and materials to the existing buildings. In developing the new techniques of solar energy application to heating and cooling system, the economic problems hire to be addressed, The typical problems encountered in applying the solar energy are insufficient design concept for HVAC(heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system and low reliability, Further, the economical efficiency of the solar energy is still low to compete with the oil, and there are many limits on the realization of the actual system in a building, e.g. spatial alignments and exterior appearances. The purpose of this study is to find the improved method to increase the heat transfer efficiency of the solar energy system that are to be installed in houses and commercial buildings. For this, a series of experiments using the bi-directional thermo diode system (Smart Module System) were made. Six kinds of working fluids were used to investigate their effects on the thermal performance of a bi-directional solar thermo diode. Two kinds of thermo diodes were studied. The first one is the mono-directional thermo diode that allows heat flow in the desired direction but blocks in the opposite direction. The second one is the bi-directional thermo diode of which the direction of heat flow, surface absorptivity and heat capacity of the module can be adjusted for maximum energy efficiency. This hi-directional can be used both for the summer cooling and winter heating of buildings and shelters. Usually, the thermo diodes are simple beam shape, but in this study, they were redesigned as two L-shaped loops mounted between a collector plate and a Storage tank. Rotable joints between the horizontal and inclined segments of the loop enable easy alteration of geat transfer direction. The loops and tank were filled with a working fluid for effective heat transfer when the solar thermo diode was forwarded biased. The solar thermo diode was heated by a radiant heater that consisted of 20 halogen lamps that generates a heat flux of about 1000W/m2 on the collector surface. The working fluids used in the study were water, acetone, ethylalcohol. In addition, three kinds of silicon oil with different viscosity were studied. And three mixtures of water and ethylalcohol of different volume ratio were used. Finally, the nano fluids were also studied. Working fluids were tested with thermal conductivity values ranging from 0.1 to 0.56 W/m- .deg. C, thermal expansion coefficient values ranging from 1.8 x 10-4 to 1.3 x 10-3 K-1, and kinematic viscosity values ranging from 0.65 x 10-6 to 100 x 10-6 m2/s. Through the study, it was found that the circulation point(CP) at the onset of fluid flow is very important. for a given working fluid, the heat transfer and heated stability of the system depends strongly on the circulation point of the fluid stream. Also, the circulation point are different each other for different working fluids. In summary, the circulation point is the function of working fluid, geometrical characteristics of the thermodiodes and flow conditions such as flow velocity and flow rate. The earlier occurrence of circulation point at a lower temperature leads the stable distribution of the temperature. With this respect, the working fluid of water-ethylalcohol mixture whose volume ratio is 2 to 8 were found to yield the most stable heat transfer
[en] Variable renewable energy sources (VRE) for electricity generation, such as wind and solar power, are subject to inherent output fluctuations. This variability has significant impacts on power system and electricity markets if VRE are deployed at large scale. While on global average, wind and solar power currently supply only a minor share of electricity, they are expected to play a much larger role in the future - such that variability will become a major issue (which it already is in some regions). This thesis contributes to the literature that assesses these impacts the ''system and market integration'' literature. This thesis aims at answering the question: What is the impact of wind and solar power variability on the economics of these technologies? It will be laid out that the impact can be expressed in (at least) three ways: as reduction of value, as increase of cost, or as decrease of optimal deployment. Translating between these perspectives is not trivial, as evidenced by the confusion around the concept of ''integration costs''. Hence, more specifically: How does variability impact the marginal economic value of these power sources, their optimal deployment, and their integration costs? This is the question that this thesis addresses. This study comprises six papers, of which two develop a valuation framework that accounts for the specific characteristics of the good electricity, and the specific properties of wind and solar power versus ''dispatchable'' power plants. Three articles then assess quantitative questions and estimate marginal value, optimal deployment, and integration costs. These estimates stem from a newly developed numerical power market model, EMMA, market data, and quantitative literature reviews. The final paper addresses market design. In short, the principal findings of this thesis are as follows. Electricity is a peculiar economic good, being at the same time perfectly homogenous and heterogeneous along three dimensions - time, space, and lead-time. Electricity's heterogeneity is rooted in its physics, notably the fact it cannot be stored. (Only) because of heterogeneity, the economics of wind and solar power are affected by their variability. The impact of variability, expressed in terms of marginal value, can be quite significant: for example, at 30% wind market share, electricity from wind power is worth 30-50% less than electricity from a constant source, as this study estimates. This value drop stems mainly from the fact that the capital embodied in thermal plants is utilized less in power systems with high VRE shares. Any welfare analysis of VRE needs to take electricity's heterogeneity into account. The impact of variability on VRE cannot only be expressed in terms of marginal value, but also in terms of costs, or in terms of optimal deployment. The mentioned value drop corresponds to an increase of costs by 30-50%, or a reduction of the optimal share by two thirds. These findings lead to seven policy conclusions: 1. Wind power will play a significant role (compared to today). 2. Wind power will play a limited role (compared to some political ambitions). 3. There are many effective options to integrate wind power into power systems, including transmission investments, flexibilizing thermal generators, and advancing wind turbine design. Electricity storage, in contrast, plays a limited role (however, it can play a larger role for integrating solar). 4. For these integration measures to materialize, it is important to get both prices and policies right. Prices need to reflect marginal costs, entry barriers should be tiered down, and policy must not shield agents from incentives. 5. VRE capacity should be brought to the system at a moderate pace. 6. VRE do not go well together with nuclear power or carbon capture and storage - these technologies are too capital intensive. 7. Large-scale VRE deployment is not only an efficiency issue, but has also distributional consequences. Re-distribution can be large and might an important policy driver.
[en] Power systems are currently facing several issues in order to evolve and integrate less carbon-heavy, and potentially more local, production. Prospective model-based analysis is a precious tool for exploring the possible long-term developments of these systems and comparing their advantages and disadvantages. However, to ensure relevance, it is important to reconcile the spatial and temporal phenomena that occur at various scales. Power system management depends on constantly maintaining a complex supply-demand balance. Meeting this challenge requires anticipating demand variations and power plant availability, combined with regulation systems to resolve remaining discrepancies. These regulations are activated in from a few seconds up to several hours. On shorter timescales, power systems show inherent robustness: the power grid creates an electromagnetic coupling between synchronous machines allowing them to share their inertia. This inertia, which takes the form of kinetic energy, is instantaneously available to face natural demand or supply fluctuations. To ensure that proposed long-term scenarios are consistent with the robustness requirements of power systems, which enable their management, this robustness must be assessed using prospective modeling. In this work, we propose an indicator, calculable within prospective studies, which assesses power system stability, namely its ability to return to synchronism after a perturbation. This indicator is based on an aggregated description of the transportation power grid and describes the electromagnetic coupling brought by the power grid. When combined with a bottom-up model from the MARKAL/TIMES family describing the French power system, this synchronism indicator, along with another indicator quantifying the available kinetic reserve, enables us to assess the consequences of renewable penetration, especially in terms of power system robustness. (author)
[fr]Les systemes electriques evoluent actuellement vers l'integration d'une production moins carbonee, eventuellement plus locale. Afin d'explorer les evolutions possibles de ces systemes sur le long terme, l'exercice prospectif s'appuyant sur des modeles est un outil precieux. Cependant, pour etre pertinent, il doit reconcilier des phenomenes spatiaux et temporels a des echelles variees. Ainsi, le fonctionnement du systeme electrique repose sur un equilibre offre - demande a chaque instant. Afin de corriger les fluctuations de la production ou de la consommation qui surviennent necessairement, les gestionnaires de reseau mettent en place un certain nombre de regulations dont les durees d'activation sont de l'ordre de quelques secondes a quelques heures. A des echelles de temps encore plus fines le systeme electrique presente une robustesse interne: le reseau electrique cree un couplage electromagnetique entre les machines synchrones qui leur permet de mutualiser leur inertie respective. Cette inertie, qui constitue une reserve d'energie cinetique, est instantanement disponible pour faire face aux fluctuations. Pour que les scenarios de long terme proposes ne soient pas en contradiction avec les exigences de robustesse du systeme electrique, qui permettront son operation, il est necessaire que l'evaluation de cette robustesse soit integree a la modelisation prospective. Dans ce travail, nous proposons un indicateur, calculable au sein des etudes de prospective, qui evalue la stabilite d'un systeme electrique, c'esta- dire son aptitude a revenir au synchronisme suite a une perturbation. Cet indicateur repose sur une description agregee du reseau de transport et traduit le couplage electromagnetique apporte par le reseau. Associe au modele bottom-up de la famille MARKAL/TIMES decrivant le systeme electrique francais, cet indicateur de synchronisme et un indicateur quantifiant la reserve cinetique disponible, nous permet d'evaluer les consequences de la penetration du renouvelable, notamment sur la robustesse du systeme electrique. (auteur)