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[en] Under the current macro-economic trends, the so far abundant support system for renewables (mainly in the form of feed-in-tariffs and quota systems) has been drastically modified. In many EU countries, companies are trying to find alternative ways to secure financing for their renewable energy projects. Therefore, new ways of attracting private capital for the realisation of green energy goals have to replace the old schemes. Some new forms of financing are coming together with the EU Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 (project guarantees, packaging of small project for micro-financing schemes at the regional level, preferential loan instead of subsidies etc.). Advanced financial structures are likely to play an increasingly important role in the allocation of risk and reward among different investor classes. The finance and investment gap needs to be filled by the private sector. The challenge is to identify the appropriate policy options and financial tools to attract and scale-up private investments. There are, however, already innovative and promising business and financial models to promote the deployment of RES in the EU. The aim of the EurObserv'ER case studies is to find such examples and describe them so as to put forward the best practices and the replicability of the future promising financing mechanisms. EurObserv'ER will aim at choosing only the most promising ones and try to describe them in order to promote replicability in other geographical areas. The selection criteria for the choice of case studies should ensure (i) diversity across regions and RES, (ii) diversity across finance instruments/mechanisms, (iii) success of approach and its potential to be replicated, (iv) and a wide range of the 'size' of actors/ investors and the resulting RES investments (capacity). The current selection also takes into account the fact that there were already some case studies published in 2014, 2015, 2018 and 2019. These are also available for download on the project web site: www.eurobserv-er.org
[en] This WEMO edition reviews an exceptional period with two distinctive phases: - In 2019 worldwide economic slowdown combined with energy transition measures resulted in some improvements regarding climate change objectives. However, the world was not on track to meet the 2015 Paris agreement objectives. - In 2020 our planet suffered from the COVID-19 pandemic and the economic crisis that followed, plunging our world into a long period of uncertainty. This year's World Energy Markets Observatory report explores how the energy sector can balance these competing priorities. Here we present practical ideas for how utilities, policy-makers and private companies can embrace a strategy that builds short-term resiliency while improving long-term sustainability.
[en] After some brief recalls of definitions (surface and deep geothermal energy), indications of some operational characteristics (high and low energy geothermal, heat pumps), indications of the various fields of application of these different approaches and techniques, indications of some key data (turnover, production, potential), this publication proposes an overview of the various assets of this sector: a local, available, performing, and clean energy, a structured sector. It outlines the essential role of geothermal energy in reaching the objectives of the law on energy transition, but also that the development rate is still insufficient to reach the objectives defined for 2023. Then, measures and actions are proposed to free the whole potential of the geothermal energy sectors.
[en] This study has been performed by the French leader in the fabrication of solar self-consumption boxes which allow up to 70 per cent of reduction of electric power consumption for a household without any comfort loss nor any need of energy storage. It proposes an analysis of the life cycle of this solution. After a presentation of the context about new digital products and services, and of the eco-design of digital services, the analysis is presented. It comprises an initial diagnosis and a reporting of results of modelling of the steering scenario for a house in self-consumption during a year. The environmental balance is discussed, as well as the energy efficiency. Environmental benefits are discussed in terms of reduction of energy consumption for the box and for connected objects, and of equipment lifetime extension. An action plan is finally proposed
[en] In a study on vigilance in the supply chains of minerals used in the energy transition, Sherpa highlights the shortcomings of the measures presented in the vigilance plans of nine French companies, more than three years after the adoption of the Duty of Vigilance Law. Fighting global warming requires a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions to reach the climate targets set out in the Paris agreement. However, the current implementation of the energy transition, through the development of electric mobility or the deployment of renewable energies, requires increasing supplies of certain minerals used to produce batteries or solar panels. The World Bank has identified at least 17 minerals essential for these technologies, such as lithium, cobalt, and neodymium. Yet the extraction and supply of these minerals can lead to environmental and human rights adverse impacts. The Business and Human Rights Resource Centre has documented more than 160 cases of human rights and environmental allegations for the 37 largest companies involved in the extraction and use of minerals crucial in the transition to low-carbon technologies. Sherpa sought to verify whether the vigilance plans published by nine French companies subject to the Duty of Vigilance Law contain reasonable and adequate vigilance measures to identify such risks and prevent such impacts. In particular, our research shows that the content of the vigilance plans analyzed is insufficient, as the risks associated with these minerals rarely appear in these plans, and the listed measures are often imprecise and detached from the companies' activities. Companies often limit themselves to presenting tools that they were already using before the law existed, such as audits or certifications, but which in practice do not make it possible to avoid damage linked to the use of these minerals.
[en] As the global electricity systems are shaped by decentralisation, digitalisation and decarbonization, the World Energy Council's Innovation Insights Briefs explore the new frontiers in energy transitions and the challenges of keeping pace with fast moving developments. We use leadership interviews to map the state of play and case studies across the whole energy landscape and build a broader and deeper picture of new developments within and beyond the new energy technology value chain and business ecosystem. The topic of this briefing is energy storage. We interviewed energy leaders from 17 countries, exploring recent progress in terms of technology, business models and enabling policies. We showcase these in 10 case studies. While the brief addresses energy storage as a whole, most insights are focused on electrical storage. Our research highlighted that today's mainstream storage technologies are unlikely to be sufficient to meet future flexibility requirements resulting from further decentralisation and decarbonization efforts. Furthermore, a restricted focus on lithium-ion batteries is putting the development of more cost-effective alternative technologies at risk. A detailed list of the interviews with innovators, energy users and producers can be found at the end of this brief. Annex 4 provides a list of acronyms and abreviations. With major decarbonizing efforts to remove thermal electric power generation and scale up renewable energies, the widespread adoption of energy storage continues to be described as the key game changer for electricity systems. Affordable storage systems are a critical missing link between intermittent renewable power and 24/7 reliability net-zero carbon scenario. Beyond solving this salient challenge, energy storage is being increasingly considered to meet other needs such as relieving congestion or smoothing out the variations in power that occur independently of renewable-energy generation. However, whilst there is plenty of visionary thinking, recent progress has focused on short-duration and battery-based energy storage for efficiency gains and ancillary services; there is limited progress in developing daily, weekly and even seasonal cost-effective solutions which are indispensable for a global reliance on intermittent renewable energy sources. The synthesis of thought leadership interviews and case studies with 37 companies and organizations from 17 countries helped derive the following key takeaways and also provide the impetus to the solution steps that we discuss in detail later in this brief: 1 - Shared road-maps: Energy storage is a well-researched flexibility solution. However, while the benefits of energy storage are clear to the energy community, there has been limited bridge-building with policy-makers and regulators to explore the behavioural and policy changes necessary to encourage implementation. 2 - Market design - Access and stacking: Market access and the ability to stack different services simultaneously will enable cost-effective deployment of energy storage, regardless of the technology. 3 - More than batteries: Energy storage is too often reduced to battery technologies. Future-proofing our energy systems means considering alternative solutions and ensuring technologies have equal market opportunities. Demonstration projects of such technologies are necessary to disprove bias towards specific technologies. 4 - Sector coupling: Energy storage presents a sector coupling opportunity between hard-to-abate sectors, such as mobility and industry and clean electricity. Different vectors of energy can be used, including heat, electricity and hydrogen. 5 - Investment: Relying on investments by adjacent sectors such as the automotive sector is not enough. The energy sector must adopt more aggressively technologies aligned with the end-goal: affordable clean energy for all.
[fr]L'adoption a grande echelle du stockage de l'energie est consideree comme un changement de paradigme majeur pour le systeme energetique. Le developpement d'une technologie de stockage accessible aux consommateurs constitue le chainon manquant pour rendre fiables les energies renouvelables variables. En depit de ce defi technique, le stockage de l'energie peut remplir un role au-dela des energies renouvelables, notamment dans le controle des congestions et les variations de puissance du reseau. Malgre ces perspectives encourageantes, les progres autour du stockage sont restes centres sur les services secondaires et les gains d'efficacite acquis par le stockage a court terme. En revanche, tres peu de progres a ete fait vers les solutions diurnes, hebdomadaires ou saisonnieres rentables, qui sont necessaires a la fiabilite des sources d'energies renouvelables. Conclusions principales: 1 - Feuille de route partagee: le stockage d'energie est une solution de flexibilite reconnue. Cependant, il existe tres peu de visions communes entre legislateurs et experts, bien que tous reconnaissent le potentiel du stockage. 2 - Structure du marche: obtenir un deploiement rentable du stockage se fera grace a un acces equitable au marche et un cumul de differents services, quelle que soit la technologie utilisee. 3 - Au-dela des batteries: le stockage energetique est trop souvent reduit aux batteries. Un systeme energetique a l'epreuve du temps doit s'appuyer sur des solutions diverses, encouragees par un acces equitable aux opportunites sur le marche. 4 - Couplage sectoriel: le stockage energetique represente une veritable opportunite de couplage entre les secteurs difficiles a decarboner et les energies renouvelables. Differents vecteurs d'energie peuvent etre utilises, y compris la chaleur, l'electricite et l'hydrogene. 5 - Investissements: il faut diversifier les investissements au-dela des secteurs adjacents, tel que le secteur automobile. Le secteur energetique doit adopter de maniere plus agressive les technologies alignees avec leur finalite: de l'energie propre pour tous.
[en] In the context of the health crisis, responses must be found for an economic revival on the short as well as long term, but with a search for the general interest, notably the climatic one. Produced by a professional body of the solar energy sector, this paper proposes there main forms of actions: to immediately free the segment of small solar plants (pricing issues, administrative simplifications), to reduce the constraints of bidding processes (wider location eligibility criteria), and to boost project development cycles (quicker and more simple urban planning processes), and to develop a strong and dynamic solar sector (by supporting companies during the crisis, by implementing a favourable regulatory framework, by defining a new partnership with agriculture, by an industrial revival, by rationalizing connection costs)
[en] This guide, intended for elected officials responsible for climate-energy issues, will allow to better understand the major current and future energy issues as well as the skills and role that communities have to play. It also aims to provide the operational elements to set up a transversal policy aimed at accelerating the energy transition at the local level and benefiting all citizens. This guide proposes to the elected official the keys to acting on the following themes: - Develop and implement a public energy policy in its territory with the right planning, monitoring and animation tools; - Control the energy consumption of its heritage and its territory (public buildings, lighting, mobility, etc.); - Accelerate the energy renovation of housing and fight against energy insecurity; - Support the development of all renewable and recovery energies (biomass, geothermal energy, waste heat, wind, photovoltaic, biogas, etc.) as well as hydrogen; - Putting its energy networks at the service of the energy transition (electricity, gas, heat).
[fr]Ce guide, destine aux elus charges des questions climat-energie, vous permettra de mieux apprehender les grands enjeux energetiques actuels et a venir de meme que les competences et le role que les collectivites ont a jouer. Il a egalement comme objectif d'apporter les elements operationnels pour mettre en place une politique transversale visant a accelerer la transition energetique au niveau local et en faire beneficier l'ensemble des citoyens. Vous trouverez ainsi dans ce guide les cles pour agir sur les thematiques suivantes: - Elaborer et mettre en oeuvre une politique publique energetique sur son territoire avec les bons outils de planification, de suivi et d'animation; - Maitriser les consommations d'energie de son patrimoine et de son territoire (batiments publics, eclairage, mobilites...); - Accelerer la renovation energetique des logements et lutter contre la precarite energetique; - Accompagner le developpement de toutes les energies renouvelables et de recuperation (biomasse, geothermie, chaleur fatale, eolien, photovoltaique, biogaz...) ainsi que l'hydrogene; - Mettre ses reseaux d'energie au service de la transition energetique (electricite, gaz, chaleur). Elabore en partenariat avec la Banque des territoires - Caisse des Depots, ce guide est le fruit de l'expertise d'Amorce au contact de l'ensemble des collectivites et des acteurs impliques sur le territoire dans le domaine de l'energie.
[en] After having indicated some key data which illustrate the situation and the predicted evolution of fleets of electrical or hybrid vehicles, and of the number of charge points, this study gives an overview of the strategy and evolving role of car manufacturers in the production of electric and hybrid vehicles, of their components, and in the deployment of associated infrastructures. Thus, it notably describes the various ways car manufacturers adopt to intervene in battery manufacturing either by assembling batteries (purchase of cells, assembling units) or by manufacturing batteries (investment, fabrication unit either owned or shared in partnership). It describes how this commitment in battery manufacturing can have impacts on other battery markets (for grid, industry, building or individual housing), and the various possible strategies (to become a battery provider, to develop partnerships, to commercialise battery packs). The next part addresses the development potential related infrastructures and services associated with e-mobility: manufacturing of charging stations, installation of these stations, operation of a charging station network, proposition of mobility services. The last part indicates how some manufacturers are committed in a global strategy and have created subsidies to be present on very different activity segments which may even reach electricity supply.
[fr]Deux tendances lourdes se degagent actuellement: l'e-mobilite decolle enfin et les reseaux electriques recherchent de la flexibilite (notamment pour pallier l'intermittence de certaines energies renouvelables, en fort developpement actuel et futur). Et ces deux tendances creent des opportunites pour les constructeurs automobiles. L'accroissement des ventes de vehicules electriques pose la question du sourcing des batteries, un composant devenu strategique dans la fabrication des vehicules electriques. Achats massifs a plus ou moins long terme aupres des fabricants asiatiques, assemblage en propre, et, de plus en plus, construction de gigafactories, les strategies different. La plupart des constructeurs automobiles securisent leurs approvisionnements en batteries. Ce qui ouvre de nouveaux horizons, a commencer par le stockage stationnaire y compris, d'ailleurs, avec des batteries de 2nde vie. Soutien au reseau electrique (pour ramener la frequence a 50 Hz), flexibilisation des sites industriels ou encore augmentation du taux d'autoconsommation des batiments/maisons dotes de panneaux photovoltaiques: les developpements possibles sont nombreux. Et il en va de meme pour le smart charging avec un interet mutuel pour les conducteurs de vehicules electriques et les gestionnaires de reseau. Ou encore de l'utilisation de la batterie des vehicules electriques, lorsqu'ils sont a l'arret (V2H, V2B, V2G). Les synergies entre l'automobile et l'electricite se renforcent. A tel point que certains constructeurs automobiles ont saute le pas en devenant fournisseur d'electricite. Volkswagen - via sa filiale Elli - en offre un exemple emblematique. Et il pourrait etre suivi par d'autres comme Tesla prochainement au Royaume- Uni. Tandis que d'autres misent plus sur des partenariats avec les energeticiens. Quelle que soit leur forme, les relations entre constructeurs automobiles devraient a l'avenir nettement s'intensifier.
[en] As required by the energy transition law for green growth, RTE has prepared and published this Annual Electricity Report to present a general overview of the activities and developments of the French power distribution system during the past year: power consumption (evolution, sectoral distribution, temperature and uses dependence, European comparison); power generation (overall production, production by energy source: nuclear, fossil fuels, hydraulic, wind, solar, renewable thermal, overall renewable sources, CO2 emissions); regional analysis (production/consumption balance, regional consumption, regional production); transportation grid (recent evolutions, new and renewed connections, highlights, RTE's investments, map of the main projects in progress or planned, electricity quality, losses); prices and trades (market price in Europe, balance of trades, Central Western European (CWE) electricity market region, Spain, Italy, Switzerland, UK, evolution of trans-border exchange mechanisms); market mechanisms (Balance Responsible Entities activity, adjustment mechanism, peak load shedding, capacity mechanisms). A glossary is provided in appendix