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[en] The authors report the analysis of the oxygen isotopic composition of sulfates dissolved in 102 samples of thermal waters coming from different contexts: sedimentary (Parisian Basin), volcanic (New Mexico, West Indies, Mont Dore in France), or base (France), with the objective of a better understanding of the behaviour of oxygen isotopes of dissolved sulfates in order to use them as a geochemical tool in geothermal exploration. Some of these thermal waters contain colloids of silica, sulphur or iron which disturb oxygen extraction, and the authors therefore reconsidered handling conditions. After a recall of knowledge about the sulfate-water geo-thermometer (thermodynamic balance, kinetic parameters), the authors address mechanisms which disturb the SO4-H2O thermometer (cases of overestimated or underestimated temperature). They describe the experimental methodology: sampling, chemical processing, oxygen extraction, isotopic analysis by using a mass spectrometer. Then applications to the different studied fields are reported.
[en] This report, commissioned in 1989, first discusses the impact of the greenhouse effect on climate change and the consequences for our society. It defines the greenhouse effect (the certainty of an increase of greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere, model predictions, already visible effects of climate change), discusses its various consequences and that of climate change on forest, on agriculture, on water resources, on winter sports resorts, on sea fishing, on sea level, and briefly discusses the answer to this type of risk. The next part proposes an analysis of current contributions to the greenhouse effect in the world (emissions, contributions due to fossil energy, CFC contribution) and in France (contributions of the production and use of fossil energy, of agriculture, of waste processing, of CFC). The next part addresses possibilities of preventive actions to reduce emissions related to agricultural activities, of actions in the forestry and wood sector, of possibilities of reduction of emissions related to the use of fossil energy, to wastes, to CFC and their substitutes, to tropical forests and agriculture. It discusses how to stimulate the implementation of actions of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through economic measures (taxes, political measures, support to R and D). The last parts propose an overview of studies and researches on mechanisms and effects of climate change, and of the actions to be undertaken by public agencies and in different sectors. Numerous appendices are provided.