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[en] This WEMO edition reviews an exceptional period with two distinctive phases: - In 2019 worldwide economic slowdown combined with energy transition measures resulted in some improvements regarding climate change objectives. However, the world was not on track to meet the 2015 Paris agreement objectives. - In 2020 our planet suffered from the COVID-19 pandemic and the economic crisis that followed, plunging our world into a long period of uncertainty. This year's World Energy Markets Observatory report explores how the energy sector can balance these competing priorities. Here we present practical ideas for how utilities, policy-makers and private companies can embrace a strategy that builds short-term resiliency while improving long-term sustainability.
[en] This report proposes an inventory of knowledge in geothermal energy (high and low enthalpy) in 55 countries of the world concerned by this resource. For each country, a sheet briefly indicates currently exploited and potential fields, produced and foreseen powers, and some field characteristics (fluid nature, temperature, number of drilled wells), proposes a brief overview of the sector organization (indication of national bodies, and of foreign companies intervening in the country), and states some general remarks related to the local energy policy, and, in some cases, research orientations
[en] To enlighten the debate on future energy policy, UFE has carried out a study of three generation scenarios, looking ahead to 2030: a '70% nuclear' generation scenario (under which the lifetime of the existing nuclear fleet is extended from 40 to 60 years and renewables are developed in line with the Grenelle plan); a '50% nuclear' generation scenario (under which the share of nuclear technology in the energy mix is reduced to 50%); and finally a '20% nuclear generation' scenario (under which all existing nuclear facilities are shut down upon reaching the end of a 40 year working lifetime). A cross-analysis was carried out between these generation scenarios and a range of scenarios for possible future developments in electricity consumption, incorporating various hypothetical projections for demand side management. The results of the study provide a clearer picture of the possible 'policy' choices, based on climate, social, economic and financial criteria, each of which requires weighting against the others in a consistent manner. The following key points raised by the study summarize the main considerations that future governments will need to take into account
[en] The use of renewable energy sources at global level continues growing at a rapid pace, yet in the frame of a strong decrease of the oil price. Regarding to electric generation, renewable sources represented about 59% of new power installed in 2014, with a market ruled by hydro, wind and photovoltaic solar energies. To the end of 2015, the renewable energy capacity was enough to feed about the 23.7% of the global electric demand, being the main contributions hydro (16.6%), wind (3.7%), bioenergy (2.0%) and photovoltaic (1.2%). In Argentina, even though since 16 years ago there has been various programs to boost their use, the growth of the new renewables, mainly wind and solar, has been very slow. The electricity power mix has a strong dependence on thermal generation based on fossil fuels, whit a relative share over 60% since 2011 to date. At the same time, the share of wind and photovoltaic energies has been very small, representing just the 0.44% of power generation at 2015. Here, an overview at global, regional, and national level of the photovoltaic solar energy development as power generation source is presented. Particularly, the photovoltaic market, the incidence of the photovoltaic technology in the power mix, and aspects concerning to electricity tariff and legal and technical regulations at the local level are analyzed, with special emphasis on distributed generation. (author)
[es]El uso de las fuentes renovables de energía a nivel mundial continúa creciendo a ritmo acelerado, aún en un contexto de fuerte descenso de los precios del petróleo. En lo referente a la generación eléctrica, las fuentes renovables representaron alrededor del 59% de la nueva potencia instalada en 2014, con un mercado dominado por las energías hidroeléctrica, eólica y solar fotovoltaica. A finales del 2015, la capacidad de energía renovable era suficiente para abastecer aproximadamente el 23,7% de la electricidad mundial, siendo sus principales contribuciones la energía hidráulica (16,6%), la eólica (3,7%), la bioenergía (2,0%) y la solar fotovoltaica (1,2%). En la Argentina, si bien hubo diversos programas que incentivaron su uso en los últimos 16 años, el avance de las nuevas energías renovables, principalmente eólica y solar, ha sido sumamente lento. La matriz eléctrica tiene una fuerte dependencia con la generación térmica basada en combustibles fósiles, cuya contribución relativa es superior al 60% desde 2011 a la fecha. Al mismo tiempo, la participación de las energías eólica y fotovoltaica ha sido muy reducida, representando sólo el 0,44% de la generación eléctrica del año 2015. Se presentará un panorama a nivel global, regional y nacional del desarrollo de la energía solar fotovoltaica como fuente de generación eléctrica. En particular, se analizarán el mercado fotovoltaico, la incidencia de la tecnología fotovoltaica en la matriz energética, y aspectos concernientes a la tarifa y al desarrollo de las regulaciones técnicas y legales en el ámbito local, con especial énfasis en la generación distribuida. (author)
[en] This study aims at improving the potential of penetration of solar energy (natural light and thermal contributions) in buildings in winter, by improving their exposure and by limiting masks created by buildings. Applied to the case of a development site (the Bron Terraillon ZAC), this approach aims at the improvement of the initial urban composition, and at being a source of inspiration for development proposals. The urban composition master plan, initial data, and hypotheses are first presented. After some general guidelines, a solar analysis of the master plan is reported, and a discussion of the use of vegetation is discussed. Then, the potential solar production is assessed (solar resource of the location, photovoltaic solar installation on roof, facade, or greenhouse, thermal solar installation)
[en] This brochure summarises the results of a survey about the potential development of district heating networks in each region of France: the networks principle, their energy mix and socio-economical and environmental advantages are recalled first. Then a map presents the potential regional increase of heat deliveries. In France, about 600 networks deliver 25 billions of kWh in 500 municipalities and heat 6% of the residential and tertiary buildings
[en] After having evoked that numerous factors or combinations of factors have been proposed by researchers to explain variables which could govern the success or failure of technological and organisational innovations, and that most of models mainly address the supply side and neglect the demand side, i.e. user and consumer expectations and their level of acceptance of new techniques, the author proposes a grid analysis for the assessment of opportunities of emergence of new products, new services, new processes or new organisations. It supposes that any potential innovation must be scientifically and technically possible, industrially feasible, commercially marketable, and politically, socially and culturally acceptable. Then, based on the existing technical, scientific and theoretical literature, a survey has been performed about various innovative possibilities of source of energy for the car of the future, with an evolution from conventional internal combustion engine, to hybrid vehicles, to high performance batteries, and to fuel cells. Energy sources (fuel, diesel fuel, electricity, natural gas, liquefied gas, compressed hydrogen, liquid hydrogen) are compared in terms of various characteristics and performance. Various criteria are discussed: mobility needs, time scale, total cost, performance, behaviour. Consequences for the automotive industry are then discussed
[en] This brochure summarizes the main key figures of French district heating networks: 633 networks representing 4738 km and supplying the equivalent of 2.27 millions of dwellings (6% of the population). Renewable and recovery energies represent in 2016 50% of the energy mix of heating networks (18% for the wood fuel) and about 90 district heating systems have reached CO2 neutrality
[en] The key dilemma is how to increase energy generation while limiting global warming. Take-away messages: the opportunity is carbon; the problem is cost; there are ways to reduce it; government help is needed to make it happen. Nuclear is the largest source of emission-free electricity in the US and Europe by far. A nuclear build-up (at historically feasible rate) can completely decarbonize the world power sector within 30 years. Nuclear electricity can be deployed as quickly as coal and gas at a time of need. Excluding nuclear energy drives up the average cost of electricity in low-carbon scenarios. The business opportunity for nuclear expands dramatically, even at modest decarbonization targets, if its cost decreases. An increased focus on using proven project/construction management practices will increase the probability of success in execution and delivery of new nuclear power plants.
[en] This study aimed at assessing the ground-based mobilizable photovoltaic potential by using a sensitivity grid containing various criteria and by assigning each selected criterion with a stake level depending on its ability to receive an installation. The different phases of the study are reported. The first phase concerns the sensitivity grid elaboration. The second one addresses the taking of new criteria into account (critical size of pieces of land, law on Mountain, connection distance to the grid). The third phase addressed the assessment of the photovoltaic power potential