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[en] Under the current macro-economic trends, the so far abundant support system for renewables (mainly in the form of feed-in-tariffs and quota systems) has been drastically modified. In many EU countries, companies are trying to find alternative ways to secure financing for their renewable energy projects. Therefore, new ways of attracting private capital for the realisation of green energy goals have to replace the old schemes. Some new forms of financing are coming together with the EU Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 (project guarantees, packaging of small project for micro-financing schemes at the regional level, preferential loan instead of subsidies etc.). Advanced financial structures are likely to play an increasingly important role in the allocation of risk and reward among different investor classes. The finance and investment gap needs to be filled by the private sector. The challenge is to identify the appropriate policy options and financial tools to attract and scale-up private investments. There are, however, already innovative and promising business and financial models to promote the deployment of RES in the EU. The aim of the EurObserv'ER case studies is to find such examples and describe them so as to put forward the best practices and the replicability of the future promising financing mechanisms. EurObserv'ER will aim at choosing only the most promising ones and try to describe them in order to promote replicability in other geographical areas. The selection criteria for the choice of case studies should ensure (i) diversity across regions and RES, (ii) diversity across finance instruments/mechanisms, (iii) success of approach and its potential to be replicated, (iv) and a wide range of the 'size' of actors/ investors and the resulting RES investments (capacity). The current selection also takes into account the fact that there were already some case studies published in 2014, 2015, 2018 and 2019. These are also available for download on the project web site: www.eurobserv-er.org
[en] Factors affecting Nuclear adoption: 1. Social Acceptance / Risk perception; 2. “Decision to Commissioning” time; 3. Implementation Risk; 4. Load Following capabilities 5.; Decentralization
[en] This WEMO edition reviews an exceptional period with two distinctive phases: - In 2019 worldwide economic slowdown combined with energy transition measures resulted in some improvements regarding climate change objectives. However, the world was not on track to meet the 2015 Paris agreement objectives. - In 2020 our planet suffered from the COVID-19 pandemic and the economic crisis that followed, plunging our world into a long period of uncertainty. This year's World Energy Markets Observatory report explores how the energy sector can balance these competing priorities. Here we present practical ideas for how utilities, policy-makers and private companies can embrace a strategy that builds short-term resiliency while improving long-term sustainability.
[en] After some brief recalls of definitions (surface and deep geothermal energy), indications of some operational characteristics (high and low energy geothermal, heat pumps), indications of the various fields of application of these different approaches and techniques, indications of some key data (turnover, production, potential), this publication proposes an overview of the various assets of this sector: a local, available, performing, and clean energy, a structured sector. It outlines the essential role of geothermal energy in reaching the objectives of the law on energy transition, but also that the development rate is still insufficient to reach the objectives defined for 2023. Then, measures and actions are proposed to free the whole potential of the geothermal energy sectors.
[en] World energy demand is increasing and non-renewable resources are decreasing by exponentially putting a huge burden on the energy sector specifically on the oil and gas industry. To overcome these challenges, renewable energy is the best option with production optimization in the oil and gas sector. However, among all renewable energies, geothermal is the most suitable energy due to its sustainability and presence around the clock. Moreover, there are three types of wells for harnessing geothermal energy such as: producing oil and gas well, abandoned oil and gas wells and geopressured brine well with dissolved gas. In this research study, the author’s considers the technical aspects of electricity generation through oil and gas wells. The power capacity of these wells is determined by the production rate of the well mass flow (m) and temperature (T) of these wells. The main factors that control the wellhead temperature are mass flow rate and formation temperature. Our assessment of gas-producing well in the Kandhkot region showed the wellhead temperature of the produced fluid is too low, compared to ambient temperature for commercial generation of geothermal power. In our work, a conceptual design system to produce power from produced gas by using Solid Works Software is proposed and we have found some positive results. Seven well from the Kandhkot gas field were selected with different mass flow rates and negligible wellhead temperature difference. Author’s found the minimum power net output 21kW at the gas mass flow rate of 0.098504 kg/s with 7.5% thermal efficiency and maximum net output 27.5 kW at gas mass flow rate of 4.102524 kg/s with 10% thermal efficiency. The overall net output power produced from seven well is 174kW and can supply to local communities. (author)
[en] Over the last two decades, Pakistan’s energy demand has grown exponentially with very diminutive measures taken by the government to fulfill the needs. The large power plant projects are cumbersome, take years to be completed and require plenty of time to get fully operational. The idea of distributed generation works well in this case. Renewable energy comes well into play when we talk about distributed generation but the dependability of renewable energy resources on back-up such as batteries makes them unappealing. The objective of this paper is to practically implement a backup for the renewable energy resources using a mechanical storage such as CAES (Compressed Air Energy System). The proposed model is a composite technology, which comprises of EES (Electrical Energy Storage) and electrical power supply system. Solar energy driven compressor is used to compress the air in a storage tank, which is used on demand to drive the generator coupled air turbine. The fact that the developed system is solar powered, no other fuel is used with air and it uses mechanical storage instead of conventional storage like batteries, which makes the developed prototype system efficient, economical and durable as compared to the existing CAES. This paper focuses on the thermodynamic investigation, design and finally implementing a prototype CAES for a small load as an un-interrupted power supply system. (author)
[en] Examples of partnerships from IRENA: - Global Geothermal Alliance; - SIDS Lighthouses Initiative; - Open Solar Contracts; - Long-Term Energy Scenarios for the Clean Energy Transition; - Coalition for Action.
[en] In a study on vigilance in the supply chains of minerals used in the energy transition, Sherpa highlights the shortcomings of the measures presented in the vigilance plans of nine French companies, more than three years after the adoption of the Duty of Vigilance Law. Fighting global warming requires a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions to reach the climate targets set out in the Paris agreement. However, the current implementation of the energy transition, through the development of electric mobility or the deployment of renewable energies, requires increasing supplies of certain minerals used to produce batteries or solar panels. The World Bank has identified at least 17 minerals essential for these technologies, such as lithium, cobalt, and neodymium. Yet the extraction and supply of these minerals can lead to environmental and human rights adverse impacts. The Business and Human Rights Resource Centre has documented more than 160 cases of human rights and environmental allegations for the 37 largest companies involved in the extraction and use of minerals crucial in the transition to low-carbon technologies. Sherpa sought to verify whether the vigilance plans published by nine French companies subject to the Duty of Vigilance Law contain reasonable and adequate vigilance measures to identify such risks and prevent such impacts. In particular, our research shows that the content of the vigilance plans analyzed is insufficient, as the risks associated with these minerals rarely appear in these plans, and the listed measures are often imprecise and detached from the companies' activities. Companies often limit themselves to presenting tools that they were already using before the law existed, such as audits or certifications, but which in practice do not make it possible to avoid damage linked to the use of these minerals.
[en] As the global electricity systems are shaped by decentralisation, digitalisation and decarbonization, the World Energy Council's Innovation Insights Briefs explore the new frontiers in energy transitions and the challenges of keeping pace with fast moving developments. We use leadership interviews to map the state of play and case studies across the whole energy landscape and build a broader and deeper picture of new developments within and beyond the new energy technology value chain and business ecosystem. The topic of this briefing is energy storage. We interviewed energy leaders from 17 countries, exploring recent progress in terms of technology, business models and enabling policies. We showcase these in 10 case studies. While the brief addresses energy storage as a whole, most insights are focused on electrical storage. Our research highlighted that today's mainstream storage technologies are unlikely to be sufficient to meet future flexibility requirements resulting from further decentralisation and decarbonization efforts. Furthermore, a restricted focus on lithium-ion batteries is putting the development of more cost-effective alternative technologies at risk. A detailed list of the interviews with innovators, energy users and producers can be found at the end of this brief. Annex 4 provides a list of acronyms and abreviations. With major decarbonizing efforts to remove thermal electric power generation and scale up renewable energies, the widespread adoption of energy storage continues to be described as the key game changer for electricity systems. Affordable storage systems are a critical missing link between intermittent renewable power and 24/7 reliability net-zero carbon scenario. Beyond solving this salient challenge, energy storage is being increasingly considered to meet other needs such as relieving congestion or smoothing out the variations in power that occur independently of renewable-energy generation. However, whilst there is plenty of visionary thinking, recent progress has focused on short-duration and battery-based energy storage for efficiency gains and ancillary services; there is limited progress in developing daily, weekly and even seasonal cost-effective solutions which are indispensable for a global reliance on intermittent renewable energy sources. The synthesis of thought leadership interviews and case studies with 37 companies and organizations from 17 countries helped derive the following key takeaways and also provide the impetus to the solution steps that we discuss in detail later in this brief: 1 - Shared road-maps: Energy storage is a well-researched flexibility solution. However, while the benefits of energy storage are clear to the energy community, there has been limited bridge-building with policy-makers and regulators to explore the behavioural and policy changes necessary to encourage implementation. 2 - Market design - Access and stacking: Market access and the ability to stack different services simultaneously will enable cost-effective deployment of energy storage, regardless of the technology. 3 - More than batteries: Energy storage is too often reduced to battery technologies. Future-proofing our energy systems means considering alternative solutions and ensuring technologies have equal market opportunities. Demonstration projects of such technologies are necessary to disprove bias towards specific technologies. 4 - Sector coupling: Energy storage presents a sector coupling opportunity between hard-to-abate sectors, such as mobility and industry and clean electricity. Different vectors of energy can be used, including heat, electricity and hydrogen. 5 - Investment: Relying on investments by adjacent sectors such as the automotive sector is not enough. The energy sector must adopt more aggressively technologies aligned with the end-goal: affordable clean energy for all.
[fr]L'adoption a grande echelle du stockage de l'energie est consideree comme un changement de paradigme majeur pour le systeme energetique. Le developpement d'une technologie de stockage accessible aux consommateurs constitue le chainon manquant pour rendre fiables les energies renouvelables variables. En depit de ce defi technique, le stockage de l'energie peut remplir un role au-dela des energies renouvelables, notamment dans le controle des congestions et les variations de puissance du reseau. Malgre ces perspectives encourageantes, les progres autour du stockage sont restes centres sur les services secondaires et les gains d'efficacite acquis par le stockage a court terme. En revanche, tres peu de progres a ete fait vers les solutions diurnes, hebdomadaires ou saisonnieres rentables, qui sont necessaires a la fiabilite des sources d'energies renouvelables. Conclusions principales: 1 - Feuille de route partagee: le stockage d'energie est une solution de flexibilite reconnue. Cependant, il existe tres peu de visions communes entre legislateurs et experts, bien que tous reconnaissent le potentiel du stockage. 2 - Structure du marche: obtenir un deploiement rentable du stockage se fera grace a un acces equitable au marche et un cumul de differents services, quelle que soit la technologie utilisee. 3 - Au-dela des batteries: le stockage energetique est trop souvent reduit aux batteries. Un systeme energetique a l'epreuve du temps doit s'appuyer sur des solutions diverses, encouragees par un acces equitable aux opportunites sur le marche. 4 - Couplage sectoriel: le stockage energetique represente une veritable opportunite de couplage entre les secteurs difficiles a decarboner et les energies renouvelables. Differents vecteurs d'energie peuvent etre utilises, y compris la chaleur, l'electricite et l'hydrogene. 5 - Investissements: il faut diversifier les investissements au-dela des secteurs adjacents, tel que le secteur automobile. Le secteur energetique doit adopter de maniere plus agressive les technologies alignees avec leur finalite: de l'energie propre pour tous.
[en] This guide, intended for elected officials responsible for climate-energy issues, will allow to better understand the major current and future energy issues as well as the skills and role that communities have to play. It also aims to provide the operational elements to set up a transversal policy aimed at accelerating the energy transition at the local level and benefiting all citizens. This guide proposes to the elected official the keys to acting on the following themes: - Develop and implement a public energy policy in its territory with the right planning, monitoring and animation tools; - Control the energy consumption of its heritage and its territory (public buildings, lighting, mobility, etc.); - Accelerate the energy renovation of housing and fight against energy insecurity; - Support the development of all renewable and recovery energies (biomass, geothermal energy, waste heat, wind, photovoltaic, biogas, etc.) as well as hydrogen; - Putting its energy networks at the service of the energy transition (electricity, gas, heat).
[fr]Ce guide, destine aux elus charges des questions climat-energie, vous permettra de mieux apprehender les grands enjeux energetiques actuels et a venir de meme que les competences et le role que les collectivites ont a jouer. Il a egalement comme objectif d'apporter les elements operationnels pour mettre en place une politique transversale visant a accelerer la transition energetique au niveau local et en faire beneficier l'ensemble des citoyens. Vous trouverez ainsi dans ce guide les cles pour agir sur les thematiques suivantes: - Elaborer et mettre en oeuvre une politique publique energetique sur son territoire avec les bons outils de planification, de suivi et d'animation; - Maitriser les consommations d'energie de son patrimoine et de son territoire (batiments publics, eclairage, mobilites...); - Accelerer la renovation energetique des logements et lutter contre la precarite energetique; - Accompagner le developpement de toutes les energies renouvelables et de recuperation (biomasse, geothermie, chaleur fatale, eolien, photovoltaique, biogaz...) ainsi que l'hydrogene; - Mettre ses reseaux d'energie au service de la transition energetique (electricite, gaz, chaleur). Elabore en partenariat avec la Banque des territoires - Caisse des Depots, ce guide est le fruit de l'expertise d'Amorce au contact de l'ensemble des collectivites et des acteurs impliques sur le territoire dans le domaine de l'energie.