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[en] Electricity supply technologies considered in global long term technology scenarios. Technological and economic parameters. Calculation of the cost of electricity of the different technologies. Role of fusion in future climate change mitigation scenarios
[en] This work is a collection of technical terms related to nuclear and solar energies. (author)
[pt]Este trabalho contem uma coletania de termos tecnicos relacionados a energia nuclear e energia solar. (A.C.A.S.)
[en] Nuclear, Te, Ti Project Briefs describe the status of all RandD programs submitted to the Power Information Center by the government sponsors in energy conversion from fission, fusion, and radioisotope power sources and other thermal systems that use thermionic systems. These briefs also follow related investigations of plasma dynamics. The document is not to be reproduced, in whole or in part, for dissemination outside your own organization nor may it be reproduced for advertising or sales promotion purposes
[en] A comparison of federal policy to develop and commercialize solar energy technologies with the federal commitment to develop civilian nuclear power from 1947 to the early 1960s examines how internal factors influence the ability of the federal government to bring nonconventional energy technologies to a level of commercial competitiveness. The article notes three policy variables: the organizational format and institutional structure; the operational practice of contracting with non-federal agents for research and management: and the impact of the political environment of federal policies. It concludes that a federal policy designed to deliver a nonconventional energy technology from the laboratory to the marketplace is difficult to implement if policy-making authority is in the hands of too many participants. The nuclear power experience suggests that a sensitive appreciation of the public-private relationship is necessary to identify and resolve obstacles. 129 references
[en] The problem addressed by this study is that the amount of federal funds allocated in higher education for conducting basic research in space, solar, and nuclear sciences appear to be declining relative to government and industry. To test this hypothesis, data were obtained from the National Science Foundation on the amounts of federal funds provided for research and development from fiscal years 1955 to 1985. The NSF data were organized into tables, presented, and analyzed to help determine what changes had occurred in the amounts of federal funds allocated to higher education, government, and industry for basic research in space, solar, and nuclear sciences for fiscal years 1967 to 1985. The study provided six recommendations to augment declining federal funds for basic research. (1) Expand participation in applied research, (2) Develop and expand consortia arrangements with other academic institutions of higher education. (3) Pursue other funding sources such as alumni, private foundations, industry, and state and local government. (4) Develop and expand joint research with national and industrial laboratories. (5) Expand participation in interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research to develop technological solutions to local, regional, and national problems. (6) Develop and expand programs of reciprocal internships, and sabbaticals with industrial and national laboratories
[en] The continuing glut of oil and low energy prices are putting the renewable energy sources (solar, wind power, etc.) in a quandary. Although being much more expensive than the conventional energy sources, the renewable sources bear the advantage of being much more compatible with the interests of the environment and society, so that politicians increasingly call for more financial support for the development of the renewable energy sources. A closer look at the problems involved in these new energy techniques, however, describes the politicians' approach to be rather blue-eyed. (orig.)
[de]Die anhaltende Oelschwemme und die niedrigen Energiepreise bringen die erneuerbaren Energien (Sonne, Wind etc.) zunehmend in Bedraengnis. Diese sind zwar um ein Vielfaches teurer als traditionelle Energiequellen, gelten aber als umwelt- und sozialvertraeglich. Immer mehr Politiker fordern deshalb zur Markteinfuehrung eine staerkere Subventionierung der erneuerbaren Energien. Eine solche Politik erweist sich allerdings bei genauerem Hinsehen als fragwuerdig. (orig.)
[en] The United States is in the midst of an energy revolution, spurred by advancement of technology to produce unprecedented supplies of oil and natural gas. Simultaneously, there is an increasing concern for climate change attributed to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that, in large part, result from burning fossil fuels. An international consensus has concluded that the U.S. and other developed nations have an imperative to reduce GHG emissions to address these climate change concerns. The global desire to reduce GHG emissions has led to the development and deployment of clean energy resources and technologies, particularly renewable energy technologies, at a rapid rate. At the same time, each of the major energy sectors-the electric grid, industrial manufacturing, transportation, and the residential/commercial consumers- is increasingly becoming linked through information and communications technologies, advanced modeling and simulation, and controls. Coordination of clean energy generation technologies through integrated hybrid energy systems, as defined below, has the potential to further revolutionize energy services at the system level by coordinating the exchange of energy currency among the energy sectors in a manner that optimizes financial efficiency (including capital investments), maximizes thermodynamic efficiency (through best use of exergy, which is the potential to use the available energy in producing energy services), reduces environmental impacts when clean energy inputs are maximized, and provides resources for grid management. Rapid buildout of renewable technologies has been largely driven by local, state, and federal policies, such as renewable portfolio standards and production tax credits that incentivize investment in these generation sources. A foundational assumption within this program plan is that renewable technologies will continue to be major contributors to the future U.S. energy infrastructure. While increased use of clean renewable technologies will aid in achieving reduced GHG emissions, it also presents new challenges to grid management that must be addressed. These challenges primarily derive from the fundamental characteristics of variable renewable generators, such as wind and solar: non-dispatchability, variable production, and reduced electromechanical inertia. This document presents a preliminary research and development (R&D) plan for detailed dynamic simulation and analysis of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HES), coupled with integrated energy system design, component development, and integrated systems testing. N-R HES are cooperatively-controlled systems that dynamically apportion thermal and/or electrical energy to provide responsive generation to the power grid.
[en] Environmentalists, who have been discouraged by lack of support in the Reagan administration, are planning unprecedented expenditures of time and energy in the 1982 election campaigns. Many are planning collective efforts. Issues they will be addressing include tax credits for conservation and solar energy, nuclear energy, antiregulation, and mineral leasing in wilderness areas
[en] Humanity will not face shortage of energy, but may face problems with its use, because every energy source has restrictions. Fossil fuels change the climate,nuclear energy increases the radioactivity and can be used to manufacture weapons, solar energy is very scattered, and geothermal energy is yet not well known. Delicate political issues emerge in this scenario. Due to the magnitude of energy used by many countries, isolated energy policies can disturb all planet. This may delay decisions and result in the lack of energy supply, hindering the development of many regions, or in conflict between countries. In this paper, some analyses and considerations are presented about the future of energy use, including some axiologic features. The role of nuclear energy is analysed, because, maybe, for the first time a energy source was target of axiologic issues that have affected the growth of its demand. These issues are yet to be internalized by other energy sources in the future. (author)
[en] This book is a science comic book for students in elementary school, which contains energy and life such as our body and energy, animal and energy, plant and energy, kinetic energy, potential energy and the principle of the conservation of energy in the first part. The second part explains fossil fuel like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Next it deals with electric power, nuclear energy such as atom and molecule, nuclear fusion and energy for future like solar cell and black hole power plant.