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[en] The objective of this paper is to investigate the adsorption refrigeration cycle as a promising refrigeration technique that works using clean resources. The major aim is achieving energy-efficient system compared to the traditional system. This is approached by applying the equations of heat and mass equilibrium for a two-stage adsorption refrigeration cycle, taking into consideration the climate conditions in Syria. We solved the equations numerically to study the effects of different parameters changes. It is proved that the studied cycle can reach a relatively low temperature as -32 [oC]. Moreover, it can be operated in ambient temperature as high as 53 [oC]. In contrast, the coefficient of performance decreases with the decrease of the internal temperature and the increase of the ambient temperature. Additionally, the study shows that increase of the cooling load causes an accelerated reduction in the coefficient of performan. (author)
[en] Globally, the use of renewable energy sources is increasing significantly, despite a comparatively low energy price level. Among other things, this development is driven by energy self-sufficiency efforts, the continued fall in prices for some renewable energy options (primarily photovoltaic, wind), rapid and fast-growing energy and especially electricity demand in many emerging economies and, at least in some OECD countries, the current climate protection efforts. Also some options for the use of regenerative energies (for example, cooking energy from solid biomass) have been used globally in global energy management traditionally for centuries; For example, biogenic solid fuels are still an integral part of rural energy supply. In total, 2017 saw the use of so much energy from renewable energies as never before in human history. This applies in addition to the biomass for providing in particular thermal energy primarily for the generation of electrical energy. Electricity generation plants based on hydropower, biomass, wind and solar radiation, among other things, accounted for roughly half of the world's newly installed annual electricity output in 2017 and were responsible for around one fifth of electricity generation globally. In contrast, the provision of heat and fuel from renewable energies continued to show a below-average increase in 2017 as well. In the coming years, the different options for the use of regenerative energies should continue to be used; the absolute and relative highest growth is expected to continue to be provided by photovoltaics and wind energy.
[de]Global nimmt die Nutzung des erneuerbaren Energieangebots trotz eines vergleichsweise geringen Energiepreisniveaus deutlich zu. Diese Entwicklung wird unter anderem getrieben von Energieautarkiebestrebungen, den weiter fallenden Preisen bei einigen Optionen zur Nutzung regenerativer Energien (primaer Photovoltaik, Wind), der in vielen Schwellenlaendern schnell und stark wachsenden Energie- und insbesondere der Stromnachfrage sowie - zumindest in einigen OECD-Staaten - den laufenden Klimaschutzbestrebungen. Auch werden einige Optionen zur Nutzung regenerativer Energien (zum Beispiel Kochenergie aus fester Biomasse) global energiewirtschaftlich relevant traditionell seit Jahrhunderten genutzt; beispielsweise stellen biogene Festbrennstoffe bis heute einen integralen Bestandteil insbesondere der laendlichen Energieversorgung dar. Insgesamt wurde damit 2017 so viel Energie aus erneuerbaren Energien genutzt wie niemals zuvor in der Menschheitsgeschichte. Dies gilt neben der Biomasse zur Bereitstellung insbesondere thermischer Energie primaer fuer die Erzeugung elektrischer Energie. Stromerzeugungsanlagen unter anderem auf der Basis von Wasserkraft, Biomasse, Wind und Solarstrahlung trugen 2017 mit rund der Haelfte zur jaehrlich weltweit neu installierten elektrischen Leistung bei und waren global fuer etwa ein Fuenftel der Stromerzeugung verantwortlich. Demgegenueber zeigte die Waerme- und Kraftstoffbereitstellung aus erneuerbaren Energien auch 2017 nach wie vor einen nur unterdurchschnittlichen Anstieg. Auch in den kommenden Jahren duerften die unterschiedlichen Optionen zur Nutzung regenerativer Energien weitergehend genutzt werden; das absolute und relative hoechste Wachstum wird voraussichtlich weiterhin von der Photovoltaik und der Windenergie erbracht.
[en] Climate change is the greatest challenge facing the world in the 21. Century. After a period of growing awareness, things are now starting to change. Citizens are beginning to make their voice heard, for example with the climate marches involving millions of people worldwide. Companies and regions are stepping up their initiatives with solutions - often very localised - to get the energy transition underway, which are having tangible and replicable results. Everywhere, it is becoming clear that we can lower our carbon footprint and care for the environment. EDF, is also taking positive action. As producers of low-carbon electricity, and providers of very low-carbon solutions to customers and regions, EDF is developing products so that everyone can be part of the energy transition, in their own lives, by adopting virtuous behaviour at home, at work, and on the move. EDF is helping new forms of mobility and new ways of producing and consuming electricity to emerge. Electricity can be a vector for sustainable growth and well-being. For EDF, combating climate change requires a two-pronged approach: energy efficiency and low-carbon energy. To achieve these goals, the first solution is to develop low-carbon electricity to replace the fossil fuels used by consumers, households and industry. This will be backed by other solutions, such as renewable heat. This belief forms the foundation of EDF's strategy, which is built around three aspects: innovation serving customers, low-carbon electricity and international expansion. This is perfectly consistent with the focus of the multi-year energy programme, which confirms that France will place greater emphasis on low-carbon electricity in which renewables will be increasingly present alongside a strong base of nuclear power. These clear signals allow EDF to roll out its own climate strategy entirely consistent with the country's targets. This brochure presents EDF's strategy to become an efficient and responsible electricity company championing low-carbon growth: means helping customers to consume less and better, means eradicating CO2, means promoting EDF's low-carbon model
[en] EDF group is the world's leading electricity company and global leader for low-carbon energy production. Particularly well established in Europe, the Group covers all businesses spanning the electricity value chain - from generation to distribution and including energy transmission and trading activities. A marked increase in the use of renewables is bringing change to its energy generation operations, which are underpinned by a diversified and complementary energy mix founded on nuclear power capacity. EDF offers products and advice to help residential customers manage their electricity consumption, to support the performance of its business customers, and to help local authorities find sustainable solutions. This brochure summarises in few pages the group's profile: foreword by the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Executive Committee, the 'Cap 2030' strategic plan (Grow closer to customers, Double renewable energy production by 2030, Triple the share of business activity outside France by 2030, 6 Corporate Social Responsibility Goals), the Group at a glance (Nuclear - an international reference, New Nuclear - Creating an industry of excellence, Renewable energy - leader in France and worldwide, Energy mix - A low-carbon and diversified energy mix, Energy services - Enhancing the performance of companies and the attractiveness of regions, Customers - Innovative products and services, Corporate social responsibility goals, Transformation - More performance, efficiency and well-being, Innovation), 2017 financial targets, debt and level of investment
[en] A new ground electronic state potential energy surface of system is presented in the Jacobi scattering coordinates at MRCI level of accuracy employing the augmented correlation-consistent polarized valence quadrupole zeta (aug-cc-pVQZ) basis set. An analytic fit of the computed ab initio surface has also been obtained. The surface has a global minimum for the collinear geometry at the internuclear distance of , and the distance between and , . Quantum dynamics studies have been performed within the vibrational close coupling-rotational infinite-order sudden approximation at eV, and the collision attributes have been analyzed. The computed total differential cross-sections are found in quantitative agreement with those available from the experiments at . The other dynamic attributes such as angle dependent opacities and integral cross-sections are also reported. Preliminary rigid-rotor and vibrational–rotational coupled-state calculations at also support the experimental observation that the system exhibits a large number of rotational excitations in the vibrational manifold .
Graphical AbstractSYNOPSIS Quantum scattering dynamics studies for vibrational-rotational excitations of N2 upon collisions of Li+ have been carried out on a newly computed ground electronic state potential energy surface and the computed collision attributes are compared with those available from the experiments at collision energies, eV and 3.64 eV .
[en] Monofluorides and monohydrides of Group 13 elements are prospective candidates for laser cooling experiments. In the present work, we present scalar-relativistic calculations of ground states and first excited states of these molecules. The spectroscopic constants are calculated using Dunham expansion. The main goal of this study was to provide the initial results to guide our subsequent more accurate four-component relativistic calculations. (authors)
[en] EDF group is the world's leading electricity company and global leader for low-carbon energy production. Particularly well established in Europe, especially France, the United Kingdom, Italy and Belgium, as well as North and South America, the Group covers all businesses spanning the electricity value chain - from generation to distribution and including energy transmission and trading activities - to continuously balance supply. A marked increase in the use of renewables is bringing change to its electricity generation operations, which are underpinned by a diversified and complementary energy mix founded on nuclear power capacity. EDF offers products and advice to help residential customers manage their electricity consumption, to support the energy and financial performance of its business customers, and to help local authorities find sustainable solutions. This brochure summarises in few pages the group's profile: highlights of the year by the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, executive committee, Group's 'CAP 2030' strategy, competitive decentralized energy services, smart grids, development of renewables, development of low-carbon solutions in growth countries, bolstering of Europe positions, social responsibility and sustainable development goals, main events of the year, financial and non-financial KPIs
[en] EDF group supplies electricity and gas to nearly 40 million residential, business and local authority customers worldwide. It is a major energy supplier in the key European markets: Belgium, France, Italy and the United Kingdom. To meet the needs of its customers, increasingly actively engaged with their consumption, EDF offers more and more digital, innovative and local products and solutions. Active in efficiency, innovative services to support new uses, decentralised electricity generation, urban services and electric mobility, EDF group has a number of specialist companies to support customers in their energy transition. In France, EDF aims to double its revenue generated from the supply of energy services for businesses and local authorities by 2025 and to increase that revenue to Euros 11 billion by 2030. The Group is driving its transformation forward based on an energy mix that combines nuclear and renewable power. In France, it is implementing an industrial strategy of extending the operating life of nuclear power plants beyond 40 years by investing Euros 45 billion in the 'Grand Carenage' programme between 2014 and 2025 and preparing to roll out the Solar Power Plan. Internationally, the Group is developing its positions in wind (onshore and offshore), hydro and solar power in new markets: the Middle East, Brazil, Chile, India and China. The Group's operating performance was marked mainly by an increase in nuclear generation in France, and very high rainfall in Europe. In the United Kingdom, the fall in nuclear output (4.8 TWh less than in 2017) was attributable for the most part to two extended shutdowns for graphite inspections and safety studies, as well as two additional scheduled shutdowns. EDF group is the world's leading nuclear operator, with 58 reactors in France and 15 in the United Kingdom. These facilities give France a considerable lead over its European neighbours in terms of limiting greenhouse gas emissions while keeping the price of electricity down. To maintain its position as leader in the generation of very low-carbon electricity, the Group is accelerating development of renewable energy capacity while also ensuring the safety, performance and competitiveness of its nuclear plants. It has started construction and commissioning of five EPRs in France, China and the United Kingdom. The share of renewable energy in EDF group's installed capacity increased to 25%. Excluding hydro, the Group had 9.2 GW of net installed wind and solar power capacity in 2018. It has launched an unprecedented acceleration in renewable energy with the aim of doubling the installed capacity at its renewable facilities from 28 GW in 2014 to 50 GW in 2030. EDF group is an active player in the energy transition, with over 80 TWh produced in 2018, the largest producer of renewable energy in Europe and the leading producer of hydropower in the European Union. The very high rainfall in Europe in 2018 led to a record high output of more than 53 TWh (42 TWh in 2017). The share of wind and solar power in the Group's generation mix now stands at 3%. EDF group is one of the world's leading energy producers, not only in terms of net installed capacity and electricity generation, but also in terms of carbon performance, with very low CO2 intensity, currently at 66 g/kWh produced. This makes the Group the undisputed leader of the electricity sector, where average global emissions stand at around 490 g/kWh. This document presents, first, the Group's profile and performance (financial and non-financial performance, operating performance, non-financial rating), and then the Group's Sustainable development indicators (environmental, social, and social responsibility indicators, ethics and compliance, summary of indicators)