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[en] There is clear evidence of rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere caused by the profligate use of energy by the industrialised countries. This is threatening global climate change. This, as also continuously depleting fuel resources, is likely to deprive the developing world from meeting its yet unfulfilled development aspirations. Energy is an essential input for development, but growth rate in energy use in any country depends on its current development level. The energy use in the developed countries is projected to grow slowly, while it is growing very fast in the developing countries. It has been the experience of all the countries that development results in a shift from the use of non-commercial energy sources to commercial energy sources, particularly electricity. Thus the developing countries are experiencing a surge in electricity demand, both due to the growth in energy use and shift rom non-commercial to commercial energy sources
[en] There are many contemporary issues that India confronts and which Science and Technology can best address. The most daunting of these challenges is exploring newer, alternative and renewable sources of energy in order to ensure energy security for the nation. Energy security is intricately linked to national security. The ambitious goal of ensuring energy security can be achieved only through synergistic interaction among different sections of society. The key to selfsufficiency in the energy sector requires all of us, and specially the scientific community, to play their part 50 that future generations in India will never again have to face poverty and want
[en] This brochure, published by the main French antinuclear coalition, presents the risks linked with the development of nuclear energy (NPP vulnerability, accidents, dismantling costs, proliferation, wastes management, environmental impacts, radioactivity) versus the advantages of nuclear phasing out (encouraging energy saving, improving energy efficiency, developing renewable energies and the related employment)
[en] This book includes articles on Energy Security, Nuclear Energy, Agriculture, Moon Mission, Molecular Biology, Thermal and Solar Power, Culture, Wireless Communication and finally Tribes in West Bengal by the experts in the respective field. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately
[en] A first guide aims at helping EPLs (local public companies) and local communities to build up and develop photovoltaic energy projects. It gives an overview of stakes related to energy, presents the photovoltaic sector (operation principle, available technologies, applications, environmental impacts, perspectives on the medium and long terms), gives an overview of support policies (regulated purchase prices, public tenders, call for projects, tax supports), describes the modalities of intervention of territorial collectivities (regulatory interventions, creation of a semi-public company or SEM), gives a set of recommendations for project steering, and gives some examples of realisations. The second guide has the same objectives but in the case of wind energy projects. It outlines the importance of the commitment of territorial collectivities, describes the majors steps of a wind energy project (elaboration of the development area, project development, project financing, construction and exploitation, dialogue during the project), describes the commitment of the local collectivity all along the project, describes the creation of a SEM to develop or to finance the project, discusses citizen participation, and reports some returns on experience.
[en] A first document proposes an overview of the situation of renewable energies in Gironde (recall of European, national and regional objectives, current situation). It analyses sources per sector (solar thermal and photovoltaic, wood-energy, geothermal, hydroelectricity, wind, biogas and methanization, and innovative technologies such as heat recovery on wastewater networks, sea energy and urban wind turbines). It proposes lessons learned form source studies per sector, and a perspective for Gironde by 2020. Appendices define and locate patrimonial and environmental constraints, indicate assessments and objectives of ready to be mobilised potentials per renewable energies, locate the geothermal potential of the Aquitaine Basin, existing dams and potential hydrological sites. A second document gives overviews of the European and territorial energy context (by notably indicating the shares of energy consumption per source), of actors and of their roles, of economic, social and environmental challenges for public actions. The third document presents some returns on experience: design of an energy planning on the territory of a community of communes, production of wood energy fuel for inhabitants of a commune, design of a wood-energy-based heat network, mobilisation of the local wood resource for an urban heat network in Libourne, development of renewable energies on the patrimony of a commune, and design of a shared territorial methanization unit in Pessac.
[en] The ocean is a huge reservoir of renewable energy sources, such as wind, currents, tides, waves, marine biomass, thermal energy, osmotic power, and so on. Like other maritime nations in Europe, France enjoys significant potential to develop these energy sources, especially overseas. In March 2007, Ifremer's chairman launched a prospective foresight study on these energies for the time horizon of 2030. With support from the Futuribles consulting group, twenty French partners representing the main stakeholders in the sector carried out this work. Their objective was to identify the technologies, specify the socio-economic prerequisites for them to emerge and be competitive and assess their respective impacts on power sources and the environment. What was learned from this study can be applied well beyond France, at a time when a European maritime strategy is taking shape. (authors)
[en] Innovative solutions must be developed to make future power systems able to overcome a growing number of challenges. In particular, energy storage is thought to be the missing link that will help enable the large scale integration of variable, renewable sources in distribution grids. The present research work aims to investigate this new technical option, which has reached maturity over the past few years and is currently attracting increasing attention. In the first part of the dissertation, general methods to assess the potential and opportunities of distributed energy storage are presented. A framework for characterizing storage technologies is introduced and its use highlights interesting performances but high costs. That is why the benefits of such devices for power systems are crucial to their development. The study of this point is carried out in two phases: their applications for various stakeholders of liberalized power systems are first classified and precisely defined; the aggregation of some of these services to increase the profitability of energy storage is then contemplated using a new method, based on a locations vs. services matrix. This approach leads to the identification of several high-value configurations that deserve further exploration. To this end, a scalable, flexible model of distributed energy storage systems is proposed in the second part of the dissertation. Its implementation in a dynamic simulation software allows the study of advanced storage 'service packs' in power systems. In the last chapter, this library of parametrized models is experimentally validated and the possibilities it offers are illustrated on a case study: analysis of the provision of a fast frequency control reserve by distributed energy storage systems to reduce the use of automatic under-frequency load shedding in isolated power systems. With the development of a grid-oriented framework for characterizing storage techniques, of a locations vs. services matrix to contemplate the aggregation of benefits, and of a library of dynamic models dedicated to in-depth studies of storage applications, this thesis proposes a toolbox to help assess the participation of energy storage in the advanced management of power systems. (author)
[fr]Des solutions innovantes doivent etre developpees pour envisager l'avenir des systemes electriques face a un nombre grandissant de contraintes. En particulier, le stockage d'energie est pressenti comme un soutien indispensable a l'essor massif dans les reseaux de distribution de sources de production exploitant les energies renouvelables variables. Les presents travaux visent a apporter des elements de reflexion sur cette option technique qui arrive a maturite et suscite l'interet. Dans un premier temps, des methodes d'etude sont proposees pour cerner le potentiel et les opportunites du stockage distribue. Une grille d'analyse des technologies, orientee 'reseaux', est introduite et sa mise en oeuvre souligne des performances interessantes a des couts qui, cependant, demeurent eleves. Pour rendre leur utilisation realiste, la valeur de ces dispositifs pour les systemes electriques est donc critique. Ce point est examine en deux etapes: une classification de leurs services pour les differents acteurs en presence est d'abord definie; ensuite, la mutualisation de plusieurs fonctions, requise pour favoriser l'atteinte d'une rentabilite, est envisagee via une approche originale s'appuyant sur une matrice de synthese services/localisations. Cette demarche aboutit a l'identification de configurations porteuses qui meritent des etudes plus poussees. Pour ce faire, un modele general de comportement des unites de stockage est developpe dans un second temps. Interface a un logiciel de simulation dynamique des reseaux, il permet d'evaluer finement l'utilisation de telles installations pour diverses offres de services. Dans le dernier chapitre du memoire, la representation proposee est validee experimentalement et son interet est illustre sur le cas d'un usage nouveau: caracterisation d'une reserve impulsionnelle fournie par le stockage pour reduire les delestages dans les systemes electriques insulaires. Avec la mise au point d'une grille d'analyse des technologies, d'une matrice services/localisations pour l'elaboration de portefeuilles d'applications et, enfin, d'un modele dynamique general pour la conduite d'analyses fines, cette these propose une boite a outils pour aider a apprehender la contribution du stockage distribue a la gestion avancee des systemes electriques. (auteur)
[en] The study was undertaken with two principal objectives in mind. One was to examine the implications of the new non-proliferation architecture for the India nuclear energy and weapons programmes. The other was to explore the policy options for India in responding the changing nuclear environment so as to limit the potential damage and to take advantage to the new global non-proliferation rules. The Indo-US nuclear deal has transformed India's status as a nuclear power nation, both in strategic and energy security terms. The book looks into the entire set of transformations that mark India's nuclear journey-concerns about India's national nuclear programme, international safeguards, and non-proliferation and disarmament goals. It situates India into the unfolding global nuclear order as a confident, internationally recognised and responsible nuclear power
[en] The production of amorphous alloys by methods other than rapid quenching, particularly by solid state reaction, has received considerable attention in recent past. A particular mode of solid state amorphization is spontaneous vitrification (SV). In a series of papers, Blatter, von Allmen and their colleagues have reported the SV of Ti-Cr alloys when a metastable β-phase was annealed at a subeutectoid temperature. In the present paper, a novel expression for AG proposed for bulk amorphous alloys has been utilized for the case of Ti-Cr alloy. The so obtained ΔG values lie quite close to the experimental results in the entire undercooled region. This clearly indicates the validity of the expression for ΔG in a wide undercooled region as this derivation does not consider the limitation of temperature. On the contrary, all other relations given for ΔG take into account only a limited temperature interval close to melting temperature. Owing to uncertainty involved in the measurement of ΔCp, in the undercooled alloy, three representative curves corresponding to the different values of ΔCp and ΔHf have been obtained. The theoretically calculated values show quite fair agreement with experiment. (author)