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[en] Power systems are currently facing several issues in order to evolve and integrate less carbon-heavy, and potentially more local, production. Prospective model-based analysis is a precious tool for exploring the possible long-term developments of these systems and comparing their advantages and disadvantages. However, to ensure relevance, it is important to reconcile the spatial and temporal phenomena that occur at various scales. Power system management depends on constantly maintaining a complex supply-demand balance. Meeting this challenge requires anticipating demand variations and power plant availability, combined with regulation systems to resolve remaining discrepancies. These regulations are activated in from a few seconds up to several hours. On shorter timescales, power systems show inherent robustness: the power grid creates an electromagnetic coupling between synchronous machines allowing them to share their inertia. This inertia, which takes the form of kinetic energy, is instantaneously available to face natural demand or supply fluctuations. To ensure that proposed long-term scenarios are consistent with the robustness requirements of power systems, which enable their management, this robustness must be assessed using prospective modeling. In this work, we propose an indicator, calculable within prospective studies, which assesses power system stability, namely its ability to return to synchronism after a perturbation. This indicator is based on an aggregated description of the transportation power grid and describes the electromagnetic coupling brought by the power grid. When combined with a bottom-up model from the MARKAL/TIMES family describing the French power system, this synchronism indicator, along with another indicator quantifying the available kinetic reserve, enables us to assess the consequences of renewable penetration, especially in terms of power system robustness. (author)
[fr]Les systemes electriques evoluent actuellement vers l'integration d'une production moins carbonee, eventuellement plus locale. Afin d'explorer les evolutions possibles de ces systemes sur le long terme, l'exercice prospectif s'appuyant sur des modeles est un outil precieux. Cependant, pour etre pertinent, il doit reconcilier des phenomenes spatiaux et temporels a des echelles variees. Ainsi, le fonctionnement du systeme electrique repose sur un equilibre offre - demande a chaque instant. Afin de corriger les fluctuations de la production ou de la consommation qui surviennent necessairement, les gestionnaires de reseau mettent en place un certain nombre de regulations dont les durees d'activation sont de l'ordre de quelques secondes a quelques heures. A des echelles de temps encore plus fines le systeme electrique presente une robustesse interne: le reseau electrique cree un couplage electromagnetique entre les machines synchrones qui leur permet de mutualiser leur inertie respective. Cette inertie, qui constitue une reserve d'energie cinetique, est instantanement disponible pour faire face aux fluctuations. Pour que les scenarios de long terme proposes ne soient pas en contradiction avec les exigences de robustesse du systeme electrique, qui permettront son operation, il est necessaire que l'evaluation de cette robustesse soit integree a la modelisation prospective. Dans ce travail, nous proposons un indicateur, calculable au sein des etudes de prospective, qui evalue la stabilite d'un systeme electrique, c'esta- dire son aptitude a revenir au synchronisme suite a une perturbation. Cet indicateur repose sur une description agregee du reseau de transport et traduit le couplage electromagnetique apporte par le reseau. Associe au modele bottom-up de la famille MARKAL/TIMES decrivant le systeme electrique francais, cet indicateur de synchronisme et un indicateur quantifiant la reserve cinetique disponible, nous permet d'evaluer les consequences de la penetration du renouvelable, notamment sur la robustesse du systeme electrique. (auteur)
[en] The thermal solar energy production is a promising and strongly growing sector. However, these technologies must be integrated to electric power systems, i.e. coupled with fossil-fired or biomass-fired plants, and the energy must be stored. This production can be either centralised or decentralised: this corresponds to different situations, different markets, different technologies and equipment (rows of mirrors to concentrate solar heat on a tube, linear Fresnel reflectors to concentrate solar heat on a tube, heliostats or mirrors which concentrate heat at the top of a tower, and parabolic disks which produce electricity with a Stirling gas engine at their focal point). This road-map focuses on electric power generation, and discusses key variables of the present market, proposes a vision for 2050, identifies objectives to be reached by 2015, and barriers to be removed, outlines the needs of demonstrators and their administrative framework.
[en] Ongoing climate change affects complex and long-lived infrastructures like electricity systems. Particularly for decarbonized electricity systems based on variable renewable energies, there is a variety of impact mechanisms working differently in size and direction. Main impacts for Europe include changes in wind and solar resources, hydro power, cooling water availability for thermoelectric generation and electricity demand. Hence, it is not only important to understand the total effects, i.e., how much welfare may be gained when accounting for climate change impacts in all dimensions, but also to disentangle various effects in terms of their marginal contribution to the potential welfare loss. This paper applies a two-stage modeling framework to assess RCP8.5 climate change impacts on the European electricity system. Thereby, the performance of two electricity system design strategies - one based on no anticipation of climate change and one anticipating impacts of climate change - is studied under a variety of climate change impacts. Impacts on wind and solar resources are found to cause the largest system effects in 2100. Combined climate change impacts increase system costs of a system designed without climate change anticipation due to increased fuel and carbon permit costs. Applying a system design strategy with climate change anticipation increases the cost-optimal share of variable renewable energy based on additional wind offshore capacity in 2100, at a reduction in nuclear, wind onshore and solar PV capacity. Compared to a no anticipation strategy, total system costs are reduced.
[en] After having outlined that geothermal energy encompasses a large range of heat, this study first addresses the case of Very Low Energy geothermal energy, i.e. from 10 to 30 C: methodology of a survey on geothermal drilling, sales of geothermal heat pumps, assessment of the very low energy geothermal market in 2015, perspectives of development. The next part addresses the low energy geothermal energy (between 30 and 90 C): operations and usages, level of French production in 2015 (cases of the Parisian basin and of the Aquitaine basin, and other exploited sources: Rhone corridor and Limagne). The high geothermal energy (beyond 90 C) is then addressed: operations and usages, operated high geothermal energy plants in France, project planning in France). The next part outlines that the sector is always more structured (support arrangements, certified professionals). Geothermal energy is finally presented as an asset for energy transition.
[en] The present report discusses the renewable energy sources and 21 century (future development, energy revolution and solar radiation in space). The share of renewable energy sources grows normally from 20% to more than 50%. The solar energy from space is the main energy supply in 21 century.
[en] On the one hand energy, respectively electricity based on conventional and renewable, energy sources nationwide, are crucial for economic and social development. Considered globally, they are in continuous progress and the pace of their growth outpaced that of industry and other economic sectors. On the other hand the development of the energy sector in many cases creates problems associated with the environment, which become increasingly relevant, particularly with regard to global warming in recent decades. Subject of this report is an overview of the use of conventional and renewable energy sources concerning the safety and environmental impact. From this point of view is a brief overview is made on the main advantages and disadvantages of conventional power plants and power generation facilities based on solar, wind and biomass, which have high energy potential in Bulgaria. After analysis of selected basic principles of European and national legislation are presented the opportunities and dynamics of the use of various sources of energy in the country, now and in the larger time interval.
[en] GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. In accordance with the French Energy Code, GRTgaz publishes a 10-year development plan for its gas distribution network in France every year. This document is produced in line with European and French energy policies. It identifies the transport infrastructure that will need to be built over the next three years, and presents the main infrastructure that is likely to be developed within the next ten years. It incorporates the supply security obligations that TSOs are required to fulfil. It takes account of interested parties' needs and projects at the national, supranational and European levels. It is based on existing gas supply and demand and reasonable medium-term development forecasts for gas infrastructure, consumption and international trade
[en] Enerplan is the French union of solar energy professionals. Created in 1983, its social purpose is the study and defense of the rights and of the material and moral interests of its members. Enerplan structures its action through two poles representing members' activities: 'solar energy and building' where topics about heat and electricity generation in relation with buildings are treated, and 'photovoltaic energy' where topics specific to big solar power plants are considered. Thanks to the collaborative participation of its members, both poles allow Enerplan union to be source of proposals to develop solar energy in France. As an active interface between professionals and institutions, Enerplan includes in its membership: industrialists, plant makers, engineering consultants, installers, associations, energy suppliers etc, from small-medium size companies to big groups. This document presents Enerplan's activities in 2013 (public relations, meetings and conferences, promotional activities, projects..)
[en] After a presentation of the AFPG (French Association of Geothermal Professionals) missions and actions, of the assets of geothermal energy, and of the situation of the sector, this document gathers contributions under the form of Power Point presentations. The addressed topics and issues have been: the different forms of geothermal energy, the analysis of a regional context (New Aquitaine), the regulation regarding geothermal energy of minor importance, the technical and technological aspects of the different forms of capturing the geothermal resource, the determination of the right equipment type (heat pump) and sizing for a building, the issue of a regulation of a geothermal installation, the main steps of heat-pump-assisted geothermal project, aids, tools actors to support a successful project.