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[en] The concepts of the cities we know nowadays, and which we are accustomed to, change at a very rapid pace. The philosophy of their design is also changing. It will base on new standards, entering a completely different, futuristic dimension. This stage is related to changes in the perception of space, location and lack of belonging to definite, national or cultural structures. Cities of the future are cities primarily intelligent, zero-energetic, zero-waste, environmentally sustainable, self-sufficient in terms of both organic food production and symbiosis between the environment and industry. New cities will be able to have new organisational structures—either city states, or, apolitical, jigsaw-like structures that can change their position—like in the case of the city of Artisanopolis, designed as a floating city, close to the land, reminiscent of the legendary Atlantis. This paper is focused on the main issues connected with problems of the contemporary city planning. The purpose of the research was to identify existing technological solutions, whose aim is to use solar energy and urban greenery. The studies were based on literature related to future city development issues and futuristic projects of the architects and city planners. In the paper, the following issues have been verified: futuristic cities and districts, and original bionic buildings, both residential and industrial. The results of the analysis have been presented in a tabular form.
[en] Under the current macro-economic trends, the so far abundant support system for renewables (mainly in the form of feed-in-tariffs and quota systems) has been drastically modified. In many EU countries, companies are trying to find alternative ways to secure financing for their renewable energy projects. Therefore, new ways of attracting private capital for the realisation of green energy goals have to replace the old schemes. Some new forms of financing are coming together with the EU Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 (project guarantees, packaging of small project for micro-financing schemes at the regional level, preferential loan instead of subsidies etc.). Advanced financial structures are likely to play an increasingly important role in the allocation of risk and reward among different investor classes. The finance and investment gap needs to be filled by the private sector. The challenge is to identify the appropriate policy options and financial tools to attract and scale-up private investments. There are, however, already innovative and promising business and financial models to promote the deployment of RES in the EU. The aim of the EurObserv'ER case studies is to find such examples and describe them so as to put forward the best practices and the replicability of the future promising financing mechanisms. EurObserv'ER will aim at choosing only the most promising ones and try to describe them in order to promote replicability in other geographical areas. The selection criteria for the choice of case studies should ensure (i) diversity across regions and RES, (ii) diversity across finance instruments/mechanisms, (iii) success of approach and its potential to be replicated, (iv) and a wide range of the 'size' of actors/ investors and the resulting RES investments (capacity). The current selection also takes into account the fact that there were already some case studies published in 2014, 2015, 2018 and 2019. These are also available for download on the project web site: www.eurobserv-er.org
[en] Factors affecting Nuclear adoption: 1. Social Acceptance / Risk perception; 2. “Decision to Commissioning” time; 3. Implementation Risk; 4. Load Following capabilities 5.; Decentralization
[en] In this paper we provide a detailed analysis of heat generation in a solid-state laser medium. The fractional thermal loadings are different for different physical processes in a laser medium, including the fluorescence process, stimulated emission, energy transfer up-conversion and excited-state absorption. Applying this theoretical analysis in a diode-end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser at 1342 nm, and using a simple and efficient method to measure the thermal loading of the solid-state laser medium presented, the experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretically calculated results. (paper)
[en] There exists a variety of nuclear structure phenomena within the chain of Zr isotopes in the low-excitation regime. While the ground state of 94Zr is spherical in nature, the occurrence of low-lying collective structure has also been observed. The excitation of protons across the Z = 40 sub-shell closure appears to playa dominant role for this collective structure in 94Zr. With the goal of looking for possible competition between proton and neutron excitations in 94Zr, an experiment was carried out at the TRIUMF-ISAC radioactive beam facility. The low-lying states of 94Zr were populated from the β- decay of 94Y. The 8π spectrometer was composed of 20 Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors; details of the experimental setup can be found in earlier literature. Combining the singles and coincidence data, a comprehensive level scheme of 94Zr has been constructed up to Ex ∼ 4.8 MeV, which is very close to the Qβ- value 4.918 MeV. With the revised level lifetimes and the newly found decay branches from the present investigation, the levels could be categorized in terms of proton and neutron excitations. Detailed results obtained from the analysis of the acquired data will be presented
[en] Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a simple, effective, sustainable and low cost treatment that uses solar radiation as a biocide to improve the microbiological quality of drinking water. It is based on the exposure of water in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles to the sunlight during at least 6 h (SODIS Foundation). Several factors influence the SODIS efficacy such as temperature, radiation intensity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and salts, organic matter, material and shape of the container and the exposure time (Nelson et al., 2018). This method is one of the World Health Organization recommended treatments of drinking water at household level in developing countries. Cryptosporidium is a genus of emerging waterborne protozoan parasites, which infectious form (the oocyst) is highly resistant to common water disinfectants such as chlorine and ozone (Robertson 2015). For this reason, this parasite causes important outbreaks in developed countries and it is a significant endemic factor in developing countries, being responsible for approximately 202,000 deaths in children under the age of 2 (Sow et al., 2016). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the individual effects of temperature and radiation intensity in the inactivation of Cryptosporidium by SODIS method.
[en] Full text: Australia's electricity generation system needs to change to meet the challenge of reducing carbon emissions. To meet this challenge, various policies such as carbon pricing or renewable energy targets have focused upon the generation component with little attention being given to the network costs. Generation costs in 2016 in New South Wales represented 24 percent of our power bills while network costs were more than double that proportion at 55 percent (Figure 1) Generating costs (Figure 2) are going from circa $55/MWh in 2016 to around $105/MWh next year (see figure next page). Its hoped that transmission and distribution costs for the poles and wires may be stabilising. If we start introducing non-generating devices such as battery storage, pumped hydro storage, longer transmission lines to transmit wind and solar and frequency stabilising devices then significant increases in network costs will follow. We have been ill served by the consideration of nuclear energy in both the Power Generation Technology Report in 2015 and more recently by the Finkel Report In this presentation Rob Parker will look at the spectrum of reactor prices and vendors. If correctly selected nuclear energy could stabilise current generating prices and also reduce further network cost increases. These two factors now make nuclear energy competitive in Australia. With a national nuclear plan, business can have greater confidence in long term power prices and Australia can create a century long power generating asset to underpin our wealth and future competitiveness. (author)
[en] The goal of this paper is to identify, for the first time, the role of solar production in driving silver prices. The empirical analysis makes use of the ARDL model and the combined cointegration. The results, spanning the period 1990–2016, document that stronger solar installed capacities, as well as higher gross electricity production from solar sources, lead to higher silver prices. The findings could be of great importance to silver suppliers and to energy policymakers and regulators, as well as to solar panel manufacturers.
[en] The development of sodium ion batteries (SIBS) with Fe based cathode is one of probable material for electrochemical energy storage systems.Since the raw material of Na based cathode is most abundant in nature leading to develop sodium ion batteries as an alternative to high energy density lithium-ion batteries and also it is much cheaper than lithium. This investigation reports the structural and electrochemical performance of NaFeO2 and carbon coated NaFeO2
[en] A formal analogy between the Friedmann equation of relativistic cosmology and models of convective–radiative cooling/heating of a body (including Newton’s, Dulong-Petit’s, Newton-Stefan’s laws, and a generalization) is discussed. The analogy highlights Lagrangians, symmetries, and mathematical properties of the solutions of these cooling laws.