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Goal, Scope and BackgroundThe aim of this work is to show the ability of several fungal species, isolated from arsenic polluted soils, to biosorb and volatilize arsenic from a liquid medium under laboratory conditions. Mechanisms of biosorption and biovolatilization play an important role in the biogeochemical cycle of arsenic in the environment. The quantification of production of volatile arsenicals is discussed in this article.
MethodsHeat-resistant filamentous fungi Neosartorya fischeri, Talaromyces wortmannii, T. flavus, Eupenicillium cinnamopurpureum, originally isolated from sediments highly contaminated with arsenic (more than 1403 mg.l-1 of arsenic), and the non-heat-resistant fungus Aspergillus niger were cultivated in 40 mL liquid Sabouraud medium (SAB) enriched by 0.05, 0.25, 1.0 or 2.5 mg of inorganic arsenic (H3AsO4). After 30-day and 90-day cultivation under laboratory conditions, the total arsenic content was determined in mycelium and SAB medium using the HG AAS analytical method. Production of volatile arsenic derivates by the Neosartorya fischeri strain was also determined directly by hourly sorption using the sorbent Anasorb CSC (USA).
ResultsFilamentous fungi volatilized 0.025–0.321 mg of arsenic from the cultivation system, on average, depending on arsenic concentrations and fungal species. The loss of arsenic was calculated indirectly by determining the sum of arsenic content in the mycelium and culture medium. The amount of arsenic captured on sorption material was 35.7 ng of arsenic (22nd day of cultivation) and 56.4 ng of arsenic (29th day of cultivation) after one hour's sorption. Biosorption of arsenic by two types of fungal biomass was also discussed, and the biosorption capacity for arsenic of pelletized and compact biomass of Neosartorya fischeri was on average 0.388 mg and 0.783 mg of arsenic, respectively.
DiscussionThe biosorption and amount of volatilized arsenic for each fungal species was evaluated and the effect of initial pH on the biovolatilization of arsenic was discussed.
ConclusionsThe most effective biovolatilization of arsenic was observed in the heat-resistant Neosartorya fischeri strain, while biotransformation of arsenic into volatile derivates was approximately two times lower for the non-heat-resistant Aspergillus niger strain. Biovolatilization of arsenic by Talaromyces wortmannii, T. flavus, Eupenicillium cinnamopurpureum was negligible. Results from biosorption experiments indicate that nearly all of an uptaken arsenic by Neosartorya fischeri was transformed into volatile derivates.
Recommendations and PerspectiveBiovolatilization and biosorption have a great potential for bioremediation of contaminated localities. However, results showed that not all fungal species are effective in the removal of arsenic. Thus, more work in this research area is needed.
Background and AimAn accurate estimation of biogenic emissions of VOC (volatile organic compounds) is necessary for better understanding a series of current environmental problems such as summertime smog and global climate change. However, very limited studies have been reported on such emissions in China. The aim of this paper is to present an estimate of biogenic VOC emissions during summertime in China, and discuss its uncertainties and potential areas for further investigations.
Materials and MethodsThis study was mainly based on field data and related research available so far in China and abroad, including distributions of land use and vegetations, biomass densities and emission potentials. VOC were grouped into isoprene, monoterpenes and other VOC (OVOC). Emission potentials of forests were determined for 22 genera or species, and then assigned to 33 forest ecosystems. The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis database was used as standard environmental conditions. A typical summertime of July 1999 was chosen for detailed calculations.
Results and DiscussionThe biogenic VOC emissions in China in July were estimated to be 2.3×1012gC, with 42% as isoprene, 19% as monoterpenes and 39% as OVOC. About 77.3% of the emissions are generated from forests and woodlands. The averaged emission intensity was 4.11 mgC m-2 hr-1 for forests and 1.12 mgC m-2 hr-1 for all types of vegetations in China during the summertime. The uncertainty in the results arose from both the data and the assumptions used in the extrapolations. Generally, uncertainty in the field measurements is relatively small. A large part of the uncertainty mainly comes from the taxonomic method to assign emission potentials to unmeasured species, while the ARGR method serves to estimate leaf biomass and the emission algorithms to describe light and temperature dependence.
ConclusionsThis study describes a picture of the biogenic VOC emissions during summertime in China. Due to the uneven spatial and temporal distributions, biogenic VOC emissions may play an important role in the tropospheric chemistry during summertime.
Recommendations and PerspectiveFurther investigations are needed to reduce uncertainties involved in the related factors such as emission potentials, leaf biomass, species distribution as well as the mechanisms of the emission activities. Besides ground measurements, attention should also be placed on other techniques such as remote-sensing and dynamic modeling. These new approaches, combined with ground measurements as basic database for calibration and evaluation, can hopefully provide more comprehensive information in the research of this field.