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[en] This research examines the role of poverty and logistical operations under the circumstance of environmental deterioration with panel data of ASEAN states from 2007 to 2017. The system-generalized method of moments (GMM) was adopted due to the presence of endogeneity. The results indicate that poverty and logistical operations have significant and positive relationship with greater environmental degradation. Because poor people are not skilled, they have to consume natural resources in original and unsustainable way for their survival and profits, which results in greater level of deforestation. On another hand, lacking fuel-efficient/green vehicles and green practices in logistical operations of ASEAN countries, logistics activities mainly depend on fossil fuel consumption, which generates greater carbon emission, methane, and greenhouse emissions that can directly damage the environment and become a primary source of climate change. Therefore, reduction in environmental degradation can be achieved through reduction in poverty and encouraging renewable energy and green practices in logistical operations. In addition, this study also provides detailed policy implications to regulatory bodies and corporate sector in order to improve environmental sustainability through adoption of green practices and reduction in poverty.
[en] This paper shows and comments the fact the majority of present oil supply sources for the European Union are likely to decline by 2030, that which may result in significant constraints of EU oil supply. After a presentation of the context and the stake, and a description of the characterization of the main source of oil supply, the authors report a prudential analysis of perspectives of oil supply for the EU. They first present the analysis grid, analysis parameters (economic, technical, geological, political and geopolitical parameters), and categories for the analysis of scenarios established by Rystad Energy in May 2020 (a production growth from low to moderate or to declines from moderate to abrupt). The analysis considers a possible decline of present oil resources from 1 to 8 pc, and highlights an aggravated risk due to uneven main parameters (crude price, demand solvency, a wider global demand). The authors then outline the relentless aspect of the phenomenon, and the extreme threat it represents for peace when considering various aspects (geology, demography, geo-strategy, macro-economy, information). In conclusion, the author outline that climate and peak oil are two cumulative reasons for an emergency planning of phasing out oil.
[fr]Le declin probable d'ici a 2030 des capacites de production des pays fournissant aujourd'hui plus de la moitie du petrole consomme par l'Union europeenne (UE) risque d'entrainer des contraintes significatives sur l'approvisionnement de celle-ci. Le volume total des sources actuelles d'approvisionnement en petrole de l'UE risque de connaitre une contraction pouvant aller jusqu'a 8 % entre 2019 et 2030, selon une analyse offrant un detail sans precedent dans une etude publique, s'appuyant essentiellement sur les estimations des capacites futures de production mondiale de brut de l'agence d'intelligence economique norvegienne specialisee Rystad Energy. Les rythmes potentiels maximum de cette contraction sont superieurs au rythme de decrue de la consommation petroliere que connait depuis 2010 l'Union europeenne (laquelle, malgre cette decrue, importe aujourd'hui plus de brut que la Chine ou que les Etats-Unis). La production de la Russie et celle de l'ensemble des pays d'ex-URSS, qui fournissent plus de 40 % du petrole de l'UE, semblent etre entrees en 2019 dans un declin systematique. La production petroliere de l'Afrique (plus de 10 % des approvisionnements de l'UE) parait promise au declin au moins jusqu'en 2030. Les croissances de production attendues par Rystad sont tres largement tributaires du developpement de decouvertes de petrole dont le potentiel technique et economique n'a pas encore ete apprecie, ou d'hypothetiques decouvertes futures. De ce fait, une grande part de ces croissances attendues comporte un degre d'incertitude important, intrinsequement superieur au degre d'incertitude des declins attendus, ces derniers etant induits par une evolution connue et precisement mesuree de productions existantes dites 'matures'. Le risque sur les approvisionnements futurs de l'UE est aggrave: - d'une part a cause de l'extreme volatilite des prix du brut constatee au cours de la derniere decennie, qui complique et rend incertaines les politiques d'investissement des petroliers, - et d'autre part a cause de la forte croissance de la demande attendue de l'Asie et de l'Afrique, deux continents dont la production devrait decliner, d'apres Rystad et l'Agence internationale de l'energie. Si des contraintes severes sur la production mondiale de petrole risquent de s'exercer directement ou indirectement sur l'UE au cours de la decennie, l'occurrence de ces contraintes semble inexorable au-dela de 2030. L'enjeu des limites a la production mondiale de petrole apparait ainsi comme la 'voiture-balai' des politiques climatiques: si ces politiques climatiques echouent, l'humanite risque d'etre rattrapee par des contraintes de plus en plus fortes sur l'acces au brut. Ces contraintes ne suffiraient toutefois pas a supprimer le probleme du rechauffement. Loin de s'exclurent, rechauffement climatique et 'pic petrolier' sont deux dangers qui se cumulent et se composent. Par consequent, l'enjeu du 'pic petrolier' constitue une raison supplementaire forte pour entreprendre d'urgence la planification de la sortie du petrole, sans compter pour cela sur une croissance economique mondiale qui demeure jusqu'ici proportionnelle a la consommation de petrole. Au regard de sa gravite, le probleme du 'pic petrolier' ici pose reste pour l'heure radicalement sous-documente et mal compris. (auteur)
[en] This study examines the impact of fossil fuel consumption, nonrenewable energy consumption, population, affluence, and poverty on carbon emissions in Pakistan by using a time series data from 1972 to 2014. The study uses a flexible ecological framework known as the STIRPAT model. The Auto Regressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) Model and Error Correction Model (ECM) are used to estimate the robust results. The results show that consumption of fossil fuels, population growth, improvement in affluence level, and urbanization are contributing factors to high carbon emissions in Pakistan. The results also highlight that poverty alleviation and carbon emissions have opposite trends, this shows that the efforts to reduce poverty are stimulating the consumption of low-cost energy sources such as fossil fuels, and contributing to carbon emissions. However, results indicate that an increase in the share of renewable energy in total energy use and consumption of hydroelectric energy has the potential to reduce carbon emissions in Pakistan. The results highlight that there is a need to promote the use of renewable and hydroelectric energy. At domestic level, this will assist to meet the energy demand of the growing population and also prove helpful to reduce carbon emissions. Thus, the study recommends that a transition from fossil fuel energy to renewable and hydroelectric energy could prove an effective strategy to improve the affluence level, to alleviate poverty and effective to reduce carbon emissions in Pakistan.
[en] The transport sector is the fastest growing greenhouse gas-emitting sector in the world and it is also a major source of emissions in New Zealand. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from road transport increased by 84.3% between 1990 and 2016. This increase in GHG emissions was the highest among the different energy sub-sectors of New Zealand. Increasing energy consumption and GHG emissions are due to the gradual increase in population, car-dependent low-density development, lack of integrated public transport networks, inappropriate policy interventions and so on. These factors are making it difficult to reduce emissions from this sector. This study investigates (i) major drivers of transport sector emissions, including how drivers differ from those affecting other developed countries; (ii) a mitigation policy roadmap to achieve future emissions reduction targets; and (iii) mitigation policy initiatives by the government, and policy gaps. To identify the key drivers from a set of drivers, this study uses a vector error correction model (VECM). The Granger causality test reveals that the fuel economy of the New Zealand passenger vehicle fleet has a significant causal relationship with transport emissions. Introduction of a number of policies such as a feebate scheme and/or a high minimum fuel economy standard could effectively alter this causal relationship in the short term, along with other measures such as urban planning changes for medium-term impact. This study aims to help policy makers identify the most tractable factors driving transport emissions and alternative policy options suitable for emissions mitigation.
[en] A wealth of technical information exists on nuclear fuel cycle options - combinations of nuclear fuel types, reactor types, used or spent nuclear fuel (SNF) treatments, and disposal schemes - and most countries with active nuclear power programs conduct some level of research and development on advanced nuclear fuel cycles. However, perhaps because of the number of options that exist, it is often difficult for policy makers to understand the nature and magnitude of the differences between the various options. This report explores the fuel cycle options and the differentiating characteristics of these options. It also describes the driving factors for decisions related to both the development of the fuel cycle and the characteristics resulting from implementing the option. It includes information on the current status and future plans for power reactors, reprocessing facilities, disposal facilities, and the status of research and development activities in several countries. It is designed for policy makers to understand the differences among the fuel cycle options in a way that is concise, understandable, and based on the existing technologies, while keeping technical discussions to a minimum.
[en] Composite materials get an importance in value as an advance materials such as automotive, aerospace, aircraft, defense, medical, marine, sports, recreation and various engineering applications due to their high strength-to- weight ratio, good cast ability and better tribological properties. Al-base 2024 alloy reinforced with SiC micron and nano particles were developed using stir casting technique due to low cast, ease in fabrication, recyclability and isotropic characteristics. The development of Aluminum metal matrix nano composites (AMMNCs) is most considered material for high temperature applications because of their excellent mechanical properties, increase performance and weight saving for more reduction of fuel consumption. The results indicate that Al–SiC composite has improved physical and mechanical properties such as tensile strength, charpy impact strength, brinell hardness, density and porosity percentage. Samples with micron particles and nano particles were developed to compare the properties of both. Microstructures of the samples were studied by means of x-ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The elemental composition was also analyzed through Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. It was found that composites of Al–SiC have better and improved physical properties in nano dimensions. (paper)
[en] Reducing agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is attracting increasing attention. Balanced fertilization (BF) of cropland has been widely promoted and applied and has great potential to reduce GHG emissions. This study assesses GHG mitigation of BF cropland systems including winter wheat and summer maize double-cropping system (wheat-maize) and winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and rice double-cropping system (rape-rice) in Shaanxi province, China. We determined the boundaries, scenarios, leakage, and sources of GHG mitigation and developed a measurement system for GHG mitigation under these cropping systems for BF farmland. In the measurement system, except for the changes in nitrogen fertilizer rates, soil carbon storage, mechanical fuel consumption, and fertilizer management mode (paddy), change in crop yield was recommended as a primary source of GHG mitigation. The BF cropland areas of wheat-maize and rape-rice were 2818.89 ha and 1671.73 ha, respectively. The use of BF reduced the GHG emissions of wheat-maize by 1.15 tCO2 equivalent (CO2e) ha−1 per year and the emissions of rape-rice by 1.05 tCO2e ha−1 per year. The BF cropland produced 5007.6 tCO2e per year. Our results do not only provide a reference for the assessment of GHG mitigation on BF cropland under double-cropping systems, but also will be helpful for improving the methodology of GHG mitigation on BF cropland.
[en] Lightweight structures are increasingly in demand in the automotive manufacturing industry for fuel economy, vehicle efficiency and meeting reduction in emissions regulations. Weight reduction in automobiles have been achieved traditionally by reducing the body panel steel-sheet thickness and increasing its strength, but this technique is faced with the challenge of reduced stiffness in the panels. In the bid to incorporate numerous light-weighting ideas in manufacturing, the replacement of steel with light metals has been considered. Aluminium and magnesium are alternative materials that could be used to substitute steel because they are both lighter and possess comparable structural characteristics. Aluminium and magnesium has a density of 2.7 g cm−3 and 1.74 g cm−3 respectively compared to steel density of 7.86 g cm−3. However, there is usually unavailability of aluminium for high-volume production. Hence, the joining of aluminium to magnesium in the right proportion could be suitable as potential materials for new automobile applications to mitigate the challenges faced with the usage of steel and availability of aluminium and help to further reduce the vehicle weight. This study focuses on a review of the basis and joining of aluminium and magnesium alloys through friction stir welding to derive insights on appropriate joining process parameters selection. (topical review)
[en] A comparative experiment was conducted based on a non-road diesel engine to investigate the effects of two after-treatment devices on the engine’s emission characteristics as well as their power and fuel consumption performances. The first after-treatment device is a combination of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a catalytic diesel particulate filter (CDPF). The second device is a single CDPF-coated improved noble metal catalyst. Results showed that the two after-treatment devices had almost no effect on the power and fuel consumption performance. The gaseous and particulate emissions of the engine depended on the operation conditions including the speed and load. However, the dual DOC+CDPF system and the single CDPF reduced more than 81% of the carbon monoxide (CO) and 73% of the hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. Notably, the reduction efficiency by the single CDPF was higher than that of the DOC+CDPF system. In terms of the particulate emissions, both after-treatment devices achieved more than 96% reduction of the particle number (PN) and up to 88% reduction of the particulate mass (PM). Similarly, the single CDPF outperformed the dual DOC+CDPF system in reducing particle emissions. Although no changes occurred in the bimodal particle size distribution of the engine after the installation of the two after-treatment devices, they performed differently in reducing particles with different sizes. The particles reduction efficiency of the DOC+CDPF system was higher than that of the single CDPF for the particles smaller than 14.3 nm, and this trend converted for particles larger than 14.3 nm. Improving the noble metal catalyst load in the CDPF ensured a performance that rivaled the DOC+CDPF system. Apart from the NOx emissions, the installation of a single CDPF with an improved noble metal catalyst load can make the non-road diesel engine meet the limits of the China IV emission regulations.
[en] Lithium-based batteries are a key ingredient in the green revolution to electrify vehicles and transform energy usage through installation of large and small-scale energy storage. This new enabling technology reduces emissions from internal combustion engines from our cities and, through the use of energy storage, allows for higher levels of renewable energy supply to be incorporated into electricity grids. These changes will make society more sustainable and ensure a better quality of life for future generations. While lithium producers are enabling this revolution, historical designs have not focused on minimising the environmental and social impact of the processing operations. With the tighter environmental regulatory framework in China and elsewhere, lithium operations now being designed are responding to these challenges. This paper benchmarks the sustainability of spodumene processing operations using Hatch’s Four- Quadrant Analysis (4QA) tool. It considers process design configurations for improving the sustainability of spodumene lithium processing against identified metrics of water usage, power usage, fuel usage and waste generation. The tool compares each option on both an economic and weighted sustainability scale. (author)